Tri-Counties Genealogy & History by Joyce M. Tice
History of Bradford County PA 1770-1878
by David Craft
Bradford County PA
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Tioga County PA
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History of Bradford County 1770 - 1878

The Reverend Mr. David Craft

Chapter XVIII



THE only roads the early settlers found were the natural highways---the river and the large creeks---and those which had been made by the red men. These paths or trails have been indicated in a preceding chapter. Along the path of Sullivan’s army there had been made a road passable for horses, but this had been badly injured during the four years which intervened between the time of that expedition and the settlement of the county. All of the early travelers describe it as a difficult and dangerous path, supported in some places by the trunks of trees, in others nearly filled by the loose earth having fallen down into it, winding over rocks and steep mountain sides, from the tops of some of whose escarpments the traveler might look down hundreds of feet. The fact that the Susquehanna has no natural valley, that it breaks through a succession of ridges, that the faces of these ridges next the river are almost perpendicular, and reach down sheer to the water’s edge, has always made it a difficult and expensive matter to construct roads along the river and to keep them in repair after they have been constructed.

The first settlers in this county experienced the embarrassment arising from the want of roads, in a great degree. As soon as they could provide for the immediate necessities of their families, they began to set about opening highways for travel and transportation. The river, when navigable, afforded a cheap and ready means of transporting articles down, but to push a large boat or even a canoe against the rapid current and over the shoals and rifts of the Susquehanna was a pretty formidable undertaking. Then at times the river was rendered impassable on account of ice or floods.

In June, 1788, the first petition for roads in Bradford County found on the files of the Luzerne county court records was presented. It is signed by Thomas Wigton, Nathan Kingsley, and Ambrose Gaylord, and simply says, "The petitioners underwritten, inhabitants of the town of Springfield, respectfully represent that divers roads are thought to be necessary to be laid in said town of Springfield." The committee of freeholders was Nathan Kingsley, Justus Gaylord, Oliver Dodge, Thomas Lewis, Isaac Hancock, and Gideon Baldwin.

In September following, Isaac Hancock, Joseph Elliott, Justus Gaylord, and Justus Gaylord, Jr., presented to the court a petition in which they say, "That for the want of public highways, traveling through the said town [Springfield] is attended with the utmost difficulty; for remedy whereof your petitioners humbly beg the honorable court to appoint commissioners to lay out and alter the roads in said town as shall be thought to be necessary, with supervisors to work and clear out the same." The same commissioners were appointed as had been on the former petition, who, in June, 1790, report that they have laid three roads in the town: (1) From the easterly part of the town to the Wyalusing creek at Bennett’s grist-mill; thence northerly to the north line of the township. (2) From the town plat between Mr. Baldwin’s and Mr. Kingsley’s lots, striking on the Wyalusing creek at Porter’s saw-mill. (3) Beginning on the river near Bennett’s; up the main road to near Bennett’s grist-mill, striking the Wyalusing creek at Porter’s saw-mill. From the statements of the petition and the report of the committee it would seem that some attempt had been made before this to open a road up the river. Bennett’s grist-mill was on the little stream between Bascom Taylor’s and the school-house, near the Wyalusing creek. Porter’s saw-mill was on the Wyalusing creek, above the grist-mill, near Mr. Black’s.

In June, 1789, parties from about Sheshequin petitioned for a road from Wysox creek to Tioga Point. In their petition they recite that for some years past they have labored under great inconvenience for want of roads; that the passage over Breakneck was difficult and dangerous; that at a great expense they had explored and opened a tolerable wagon-road from Wysox to Tioga Point, and pray the court to notify and establish the same. Commissioners were appointed, who return and recommend the approval of the road described, August, 1794. At the same session of the court a road was reported as having been laid from old Sheshequin (present Ulster) to Tioga Point.

Two years before this, however, in answer to a petition signed by a number of citizens about Ulster, the court had appointed commissioners ("house-keepers," that is, freeholders, is the term we find frequently used) to lay out a road from Towanda creek to Tioga Point, who reported a survey of a road beginning at Jacob Bowman’s tavern, and crossing the Tioga opposite Hollenback’s store, and recommended its approval, Nov. 20, 1792.

Just two years after, Nov. 20, 1794, a return is made of the survey of a road up the west side of the river from Wyalusing Falls to Tioga; and another committee reported in favor of opening a road from Meshoppen to Standing Stone. During these years---that is, 1793 to 1795---roads are laid from Tioga to the State line; also, 1794, from "Plum Vale down Pine creek, commonly called Wyasock creek, to the Tioga road, the distance said to be near four miles;" also up the Susquehanna to Elliott’s road; another up the Wyalusing creek from Miner York’s new dwelling-house to Benjamin Ackley’s blacksmith-shop; thence to Job Camp’s house; thence up the creek to Isaac Brownson’s house, which stands near the forks of the creek. In 1795 the road is laid up Towanda creek, and in 1798 one is laid up Sugar creek. In 1799 a road was reported to begin at Col. Elisha Satterlee’s, at Athens; and thence easterly over the high land to the forks of the Wyalusing.

These were the most important of the early roads authorized by the court; but, though authorized, they were not opened and made passable, in many instances, until several years afterwards. The people were too poor to do very much in the way of opening and improving roads. After the dates last mentioned, the applications for roads became numerous, but as many of them were unimportant ones, and many more were only for changes and modifications of roads already laid, it is not thought necessary to follow them farther.


Large tracts of the public land became the property of speculators, who, as was natural, desired to have their estates accessible, in order that the value of their lands might be enhanced, and settlers be brought upon them. It was therefore urged upon the State, as a judicious system of internal improvements, to open great thoroughfares through the State, which would connect widely distant and important places upon her territory.

The first of these roads, at least the one which is so marked on the surveys on file at Harrisonburg, is the "Draft and Return of the Survey of a Road," which is described as beginning on the west side of the river, opposite Wilkes-Barre; thence up the west side of the river to Wyalusing, where it crossed the river near Sugar Run, "a mile below Hancock’s;" thence up the river to the Wyalusing creek; thence to Towanda and the State line. The distances given by the actual measurement are from Wilkes-Barre to Wyalusing, sixty-four and a quarter miles; from Wyalusing to the State line, twenty-nine and a quarter miles. The survey was filed in 1780. This is commonly called the "Old Stage-road," as over it the first mails were carried through the county.

In pursuance of an act of the legislature, passed April 4, 1807, providing for the appointment of a commission to explore and lay out a road beginning at a point where the Coshecton and Great Bend turnpike passes through the Moosic mountains, thence to run in a westerly direction to the western bounds of the State, Henry Donnel and George Haines were appointed the commissioners, who report that they have surveyed and laid out a road according to the provisions of the act. This road passes through Pike and Wysox townships, crosses the river at Towanda; thence up Sugar creek, through East Troy, Covington, in Tioga county, etc., and is yet known in the eastern part of the county as the "State road." The commissioners filed their report Feb. 6, 1808.

By virtue of an act of assembly passed March 31, 1821, Zephon Flower and W.D. Bacon were appointed to survey and lay out a road running westerly from Athens. In their report they say they have surveyed a road beginning one mile below Athens, on the State road; thence southwesterly across the northwest part of Smithfield, through Springfield and Columbia townships, to the line of Tioga county, the distance being twenty-three miles, one hundred and forty-one perches.

An act of assembly, passed March 30, 1824, authorized the appointment of commissioners to lay out a road from Meansville (Towanda) to Pennsborough. W. Brindle, Edward J. Elder, Eliphalet Mason, and William Thomas were appointed, who report the survey of the road, which they began at a point which was fourteen rods from the front of the court-house, and then ran to the line between Bradford and Lycoming counties, a distance of seventeen and one-half miles.

In the early part of this century a company was incorporated by act of legislature for the purpose of constructing a road from Berwick, on the Susquehanna, to Newtown (Elmira), on the Chemung, which was known as the Susquehanna and Tioga turnpike company. The road was popularly called the "Berwick turnpike." In 1817 it was completed from Berwick to the line of Bradford. It was laid down the South branch of the Towanda creek to Monroeton, down the creek about two miles farther, thence over the hills, through Smithfield, Ridgeberry, to Wellsburg, thence to Elmira. Some parts of the road are nearly abandoned, other sections of it have been a public benefit. The company did not comply with the conditions of its charter, and was dissolved a long time ago.


An act, passed the first session of the sixth congress, and approved by John Adams, April 23, 1800, established the following post-roads, the first in this county, viz.: "From Wilkes-Barre, by Wyalusing, to Athens;" also "from Athens, Pa., by Newtown, Painted Post, and Bath, to Canandaigua." On this route two post-offices were established in this county---one at Wyalusing, with Peter Stevens postmaster, and another at Athens, with William Prentice postmaster.

While this was the first legalized post-route in the county, regular private expresses had been established in various parts of the county. As early as 1777 an express was established between the Wyoming settlements and Hartford. Mr. Miner says (p. 198), "Surrounded by mountains, by a wide-spreading wilderness, and by dreary wastes, shut out from all the usual sources of information, a people so inquisitive could not live in those exciting times without the news.Fortunately, an old, torn, smoke-dried paper has fallen into our possession, which shows that the people of Wyoming established a post to Hartford, to go once a fort-night and bring on the papers. A Mr. Prince Bryant was engaged as post-rider for nine months. More than fifty subscribers remain to the paper, which evidently must have been more numerous, as it is torn in the centre. The sums given varied from one to two dollars each. In the list we find Elijah Shoemaker, Elias Church, George Dorrance, Nathan Kingsley, Elisha Blackman, Nathan Denison, Seth Marvin, Obadiah Gore, James Stark, Anderson Dana, Jeremiah Ross, Zebulon Butler. Payment for the papers, was of course, a separate matter." Some of the names in the list will be recognized as belonging to Bradford County, as did the post-rider himself. The publishers of the newspapers in Wilkes-Barre established a private express up the river, to accommodate their subscribers, and kept a standing advertisement in their papers announcing the times of the departure of the messengers from the several places on the route, and their readiness to carry with safety letters and small parcels which might be committed to their care.

During the occupation of Asylum by the French, they established a weekly post to Philadelphia. The postman traveled on horseback. It was continued during the greater part of the time they were in occupation of Asylum.

Returning to the government route, the author has not discovered who had the first contract for carrying mails in this county. In 1803, Charles Mowery and Cyril Peck carried the mail from Wilkes-Barre to Tioga, on foot, once in two weeks.

In 1810, Conrad Teeter contracted with the government to carry the mail once a week in stages from Sunbury to Painted Post, by the way of Wilkes-Barre, Wyalusing, and Athens. There are persons yet living who well recollect the cheery face of the stage-driver, as with a crack of his whip he reined his "coach and four" as he was accustomed to call his stage and team, up to the tavern, with the hearty salutation, followed by the news and gossip of the towns beyond.

The date of other post-routes may be found very nearly from the date of the establishment of the post-offices on each route.



Alba, in Alba borough, on the N.C.R.R., Jan. 5, 1827, Irad Wilson.

Allis Hollow, southwestern part of Orwell, Aug. 17, 1868, George J. Norton.

Aspinwall, southeastern part of Wells, established as Old Hickory, May 17, 1838, Alfred Ferguson; changed to Wells, Feb. 28, 1862, Joel Jewell; changed to Old Hickory, July 23, 1868, John O. Randall; changed to Aspinwall, Nov. 10, 1869, Levi Morse.

Asylum, (old French settlement---see Terrytown); changed to Frenchtown, Sept. 15, 1857, Charles Stevens.

Austinville, western part of Columbia, established as Havensville, June 2, 1846, Dunner Smith; changed to Austinville, Aug. 13, 1861, Lyman S. Slade.

Athens, Athens borough, Jan. 1, 1801, William Prentice.

Barclay, Barclay mines, Jan. 10, 1866, George E. Fox.

Ballibay, southwestern part of Herrick, Oct. 9, 1871, John Nesbit.

Bently Creek, southern part of Ridgeberry, Jan. 7, 1859, Benjamin F. Buck.

Big Pond, in Springfield township, May 31, 1870, Isaac F. Bullock.

Birney, in Herrick township, May 6, 1872, Jno. Bolles.

Browntown, southern part of Wyalusing, on the Pa. & N.Y.R.R., Dec. 11, 1839, Ralph Martin.

Burlington, Burlington borough, Feb. 24, 1849, John Rose.

Bushville, central part of Pike, established as Pike, Jan. 15, 1868, Isaac Ross; changed to Bushville, Jan. 23, 1871, Giles N. De Wolf.

Camptown, in Wyalusing township, Dec. 7, 1841, Wm. Camp.

Canton, Canton borough, Sept. 23, 1825, Asa Pratt.

Carbon Run, western part of Le Roy, July 9, 1874, Robt. A. Abbott.

Cold Creek, in the south part of Pike, March 4, 1870, Edward S. Skeel.

Columbia Cross-Roads, in Columbia township, on N.C.R.R., Dec. 7, 1826

Durell, in central part of Asylum, established as Benjamintown, Nov. 24, 1840, Selden S. Bradley; changed to Durell, March 29, 1843, W.M. Goff; discontinued Jan. 4, 1844; reinstated Dec. 11, 1848, Simeon Decker.

East Canton, eastern part of Canton township, April 15, 1862, Warren Landon.

East Herrick, northeastern part of Herrick, June 26, 1839, Jeremiah C. Barnes.

East Smithfield, central part of Smithfield township, Oct. 11, 1825, James Gerould.

East Troy, three miles east of Troy borough, on Sugar creek, April 25, 1851, Andrus Case.

Edsallville, southwest part of Wells, Dec. 14, 1827, Samuel Edsall.

Elwell, southeast part of Wilmot, May 21, 1857, Warren R. Griffis.

Evergreen, east part of Albany, Feb. 9, 1871, William Allen.

Fassett, north part of South Creek, on N.C.R.R., June 6, 1867, Joseph M. Young.

Franklindale, east part of Franklin, Jan. 6, 1826, John Knapp.

Foot of Plane, in Barclay, at the foot of the inclined plane, March 11, 1872, Theodore Streator.

Ghent, in Sheshequin, June 14, 1848, R.N. Horton.

Gillett, in South Creek, on N.C.R.R.

Granville Centre, central part of the township, established as North Branch, Dec. 8, 1825, Sylvester Taylor; changed to Granville, Feb. 25, 1831, Sylvester Taylor; changed to Granville Centre, Jan. 30, 1865, Luman D. Taylor.

Granville Summit, northeast part of the township, Feb. 9, 1856, William Nichols.

Green’s Landing, in the south part of Athens, on the west side of the river, Oct. 18, 1875, W.A. Plummer.

Grover, southwest part of Canton township, Feb. 13, 1872, H.C. Green.

Herrick, central part of the township, established as Wheatland, Feb. 28, 1837, Isaac Camp; changed to Herrick, Dec. 28, 1837.

Herrickville, north part of the township, July 22, 1843, Daniel Durand.

Highland, southeast part of Burlington, March 27, 1837, George H. Bull.

Highland Lake, in Warren township, Oct. 18, 1870, John I. Arnold.

Homet’s Ferry, Frenchtown Station, on Pa. & N.Y.R.R., west part of Wyalusing, Nov. 22, 1869, J.V.N. Biles.

Hornbrook, south part of Sheshequin, Feb. 25, 1827, William S. Way.

Laddsburg, south part of Albany, on State Line R.R., May 11, 1850, Peter Sterigere.

Leona, south part of Springfield, established as Leonard Hollow, Nov. 13, 1856, Enos Hubbard; changed to Leona, Aug. 2, 1865, William T. Daley.

Le Raysville, borough, Feb. 12, 1827, Josiah Benham.

Le Roy, central part of the township, Dec. 21, 1835, William Holcomb.

Liberty Corners, east part of Monroe, Sept. 5, 1856, Joseph Bull.

Lime Hill, northwest part of Wyalusing, June 30, 1857, John F. Chamberlain.

Litchfield, central part of the township, Nov. 5, 1825, Daniel Bush.

Luther’s Mills, central part of Burlington, established as Mercur’s Mills, Nov. 24, 1852, Samuel W. Prentice; changed to Grow, Jan. 7, 1862, James Wilcox; changed to Luther’s Mills, Nov. 16, 1865, Roswell Luther.

Macedonia, northeast part of Asylum, Dec. 20, 1856, William Coolbaugh.

Marshview, south part of Asylum, May 17, 1872, Alvin T. Acla.

Mercur, in the east part of Standing Stone, Aug. 20, 1872, George A. Stevens.

Merrickville, ----- July 27, 1852.

Merryall, east part of Wyalusing, Dec. 20, 1849.

Milan, north part of Ulster, on Pa. & N.Y.R.R., established as Marshall’s Corners, Dec. 21, 1835, Josiah B. Marshall; changed to Milan, Dec. 27, 1838, John L. Webb.

Milltown, north part of Athens, Dec. 9, 1826, William P. Rice.

Minnequa, Canton, on N.C.R.R., Sept. 21, 1869, Richard L. Dodson.

Monroeton, borough, established as Monroe, Oct. 29, 1822, Abner C. Rockwell; changed to Monroeton, July 30, 1829.

Mountain Lake, central part of Burlington, May 20, 1861, Earl Nichols.

Myersburg, central part of Wysox, April 9, 1850, Elijah R. Myer.

Neath, Welsh settlement, east part of Pike, Oct. 18, 1870, Newton Humphrey.

New Albany, central part of the township, on State Line R.R., April 1, 1826, James Moreland.

New Era, west part of Terry, Oct. 2, 1857, John Huffman.

Norconks, south part of Wilmot, Dec. 27, 1856, John Cummisky.

North Orwell, north part of the township, March 27, 1833, Roswell Russell.

North Rome, east part of the township, Jan. 5, 1846, Charles Forbes.

North Smithfield, west part of the township, March 2, 1829, Davis Bullock.

North Towanda, northeast part of the township, June 21, 1852, Stephen A. Mills.

Orcutt Creek, northwest part of Athens, June 14, 1848, David Gardner.

Orwell, central part of the township, July 22, 1818, Edward Benjamin.

Overton, southeast part of the township, established as Heverlysville, July 1, 1857, Edward McGovern; changed to Overton, Feb. 28, 1856, George W. Hottenstein.

Park’s Creek, south part of Litchfield, established as Seeley, Feb. 28, 1870, Daniel Russell; changed to Park’s Creek the same day.

Pike, in the western part of Pike township.

Potterville, east part of Orwell, August 5, 1852, Elizur C. Potter.

Powell, at Greenwood, in Monroe township, on Barclay R.R., established as Linwood, Dec. 3, 1855, Samuel C. Naglee; changed to Powell, April 1, 1872, Elhanan W. Neal.

Ridgeberry, central part of the township, May 6, 1826, James Covell.

Rome, borough, June 11, 1831, Peter Allen.

Rummerfield Creek, east part of Standing Stone, on Pa. & N.Y.R.R., Dec. 17, 1833, Eli Gibbs.

Sayre, at Junction of Pa. & N.Y., S.C., and G.I. & S.R.R.’s, March 11, 1874, Harvey G. Spalding.

Sheshequin, west part of township, Jan. 1, 1819, Avery Gore.

Silvara, east part of Tuscarora, established as East Springhill, April 23, 1868, Daniel L. Crawford; changed to Silvara, May 11, 1875, Andrew J. Silvara.

Smithfield Summit, northeast part of the township, Dec. 21, 1860, Joseph L. Jones.

Snedikerville, northeast part of Columbia, on N.C.R.R., Aug. 1, 1867, William H. Snediker.

South Branch, south part of Monroe, Dec. 11, 1863, Chester Caster.

South Creek, near the centre of the township, on N.C.R.R., Jan. 26, 1826, George Hyde.

South Hill, south part of Orwell, Jan. 28, 1837, William Warfield.

South Litchfield, southeast corner of the township, Dec. 18, 1865, Jerrold B. Wheaton.

South Warren, near the south line of the township, Jan. 12, 1827, Benjamin Buffington.

Springfield, near the centre of the township, May 24, 1819, William Evans.

Spring Hill, central part of Tuscarora, Dec. 29, 1836, H. Ackley.

Standing Stone, south part of the township, on the Pa. & N.Y.R.R., Jan. 26, 1826, Jonathan Stevens.

Stevensville, south part of Pike, Jan. 24, 1837, Cyrus Stevens.

Sugar Run, northeast part of Wilmot, established as Blaney, May 4, 1839, Nathaniel N. Gamble; changed to Sugar Run, Feb. 5, 1846, Elmore Horton.

Sylvania, south part of Columbia, March 18, 1818, Reuben Nash.

Terrytown, west part of township, July 27, 1826, George Terry; changed to South Asylum, June 23, 1854, John M. Horton; changed to Asylum, Sept. 15, 1857, John M. Horton; changed to Terrytown, Jan. 13, 1862, Nathaniel T. Miller.

Tioga Valley, west part of Litchfield, Sept. 23, 1854, Hiram Rogers.

Towanda, borough, Aug. 8, 1810, Reuben Hale.

Troy, borough, Dec. 29, 1817, James Long.

Tuscarora Valley, southeast part of the township, Feb. 2, 1871, Henry L. Rugg.

Ulster, central part of the township, on Pa. & N.Y.R.R., Sept. 18, 1821, Sidney Bailey.

Warren Centre, central part of the township, July 27, 1853, Jacob L. Brown.

Warrenham, northeast part of Warren, Jan. 1, 1835, Andrew Coburn.

Wells, west part of township, established as French’s Mills, Dec. 12, 1825, James S. French; changed to Wells, Nov. 26, 1869, Charles L. Shepard.

West Burlington, west part of the township, July 19, 1833, Luther Goddard.

West Franklin, west part of the township, April 25, 1857, Nebediah Smith (2d).

West Warren, west part of the township, March 16, 1864, Robert Tyrrel.

West Windham, on the Wappusening, established as Windham, Jan. 17, 1818, Benjamin Woodruff; changed to West Windham, Feb. 8, 1833, Elijah Shoemaker.

Wilmot, in the east part of the township, March 15, 1866, Israel Van Luvanee.

Windham Centre, near the centre of the township, July 9, 1866, W.C. Peck.

Windham Summit, near the western line of the township, Dec. 10, 1868, John Van Est.

Wyalusing, village on Pa. & N.Y.R.R., Jan. 1, 1801, Peter Stevens.

Wysox, village on Pa. & N.Y.R.R., Oct. 1, 1804, Burr Ridgway.

There are one hundred and thirteen in all; each township and borough has at least one, except Armenia, while the town of Wyalusing has six. Each one of these post-offices has a history of anxious pleading and patient waiting before the government allowed it to exist, and then, oftentimes, of neighborhood strife and personal or political preferences which secured the change of both name and postmaster. Nearly all of the persons named in this long list were associated with the political struggles of the community in which they are located.


Several attempts have been made to navigate the river by steam, but the rapid, shallow current of the Susquehanna has caused all of these attempts to prove failures. "Two neat little steamboats, the ‘Codorus’ and the ‘Susquehanna,’ were launched upon its waters in 1826, and made several trips up and down, much to the gratification of the inhabitants dwelling upon its banks, and the time was anticipated when a regular line of boats might ply on the river, transporting both freight and passengers. But the want of sufficient water in the low stage of the river soon proved it to be impracticable, and after a disastrous explosion of the boiler of the ‘Codorus,’ and the loss of several valuable lives thereby, the enterprise was abandoned."

Very early in the history of the country, rafts of logs and lumber were sent down the river to Harrisburg and points below. As early as 1792, a Baltimore paper notices that a number of rafts are in from Tioga Point. The first raft of which we have any knowledge going from this county, was the one constructed from the squared timbers of the Moravian meeting-house, on which were loaded the goods of the settlers, to remove them from the reach of the Indians depredations; and from that time to this rafts have been found a cheap and convenient method of transporting heavy and bulky articles. Formerly, in the early spring, the rafts would be loaded with hay, grain, and potatoes, from Bradford and adjoining counties, and with salt from New York State; but afterwards these articles and shingles were more commonly transported in arks, as they were called, that is, large boats, roughly and cheaply made, but which had a carrying capacity of several tons. Running the river, that is skill and ability to manage the various crafts which were used for transporting goods, was a business by itself, and to be a good waterman was to be able to command whatever wages might be demanded. But safer and more expeditious modes of transportation have almost entirely superseded this, so that now a raft or ark is beginning to be a rare sight.


When the country was first known to the white people, not only were the woods full of game, but the streams were full of fish. The brooks and creeks abounded in trout, and innumerable quantities of shad, in their season, were found in the Susquehanna. These were said to have been of a superior quality and flavor, and afforded an abundance of delicious food for the early settlers. As soon as the ice went out of the river the shad started on their journey to the freshwater creeks, for the purpose of spawning, returning to the sea late in the season. They came in schools, frequently of several thousand in a school. From time immemorial the natives of the forest had been in the habit of taking them in large quantities with their bush-nets. At the Wyalusing mission we have accounts of several hundred having been taken at a time.

As soon as the white people began to settle along the river they sought out some favorable spot, usually a cove or the point of an island free from rocks and large stones, the bottom was cleared of all flood-wood and other obstructions; then the seine, a long net from two to four hundred yards in length and thirty-three meshes wide, with weights on one side and buoys on the other, so that when it was let into the stream the two edges would be perpendicular to the surface of the stream, a couple of long ropes, and two canoes, and the party are equipped for the fishing. The seine is carefully folded and placed in the end of one canoe, the other keeps as far away as the length of the rope attached to the upper end of the seine will permit. Having proceeded some distance up the stream the net is quietly let out of the canoe, and the two parties, keeping as far apart as may be, each having a rope attached to an opposite end of the seine, slowly start for the beach. Quietly they make towards the landing, and the fish before the net are crowded towards the shore. As soon as they reach the land, if the haul is a good one, a scene of great excitement ensues. The fish are floundering in the net, some break through and others leap over and escape, men and boys are shouting to each other, and each is in haste lest all will not be secured. So plentiful were these delicious fish that they were sold for three dollars per hundred, and, sometimes, three dollars for one hundred and twenty-five. The dams which were thrown across the river when the canal was built have prevented the shad from ascending the river, and thus deprived the people of a great luxury.


In another chapter an account has been given of the great "Ice Flood" in 1784, and the "Pumpkin Freshet" in 1786; but the month of March, 1865, witnessed the highest water ever known by the white people on the Susquehanna. In the month of February an unusually deep snow had fallen, and, as the weather continued cold for four or five weeks, other snows accumulated on the top of it. In the early part of March the weather became suddenly warm, the wind blew from the south, with frequent showers of rain, and the snow melted with surprising rapidity. As the ground was frozen, the water all ran into the streams. Fortunately, the ice had broken up and gone down the river a few days before. Everybody along the river expected a flood, but when the water was at a height as great as ever had been known before and was still rising, great anxiety began to be manifested. Steadily, at the rate of about four inches per hour, the water continued to rise until it reached a point, varying with the width of the river, from six to eight feet higher than ever known. There were many hairbreadth escapes, but no lives were lost in Bradford County. But the damage otherwise was immense: fences, houses, barns, cattle, horses, stacks of hay and grain, and piles of lumber were swept down the stream in a confused mass. Several estimates have been made of the value of property destroyed by this freshet, but all of them were from such insufficient data that the figures are very unreliable.

This tremendous freshet has been styled St. Patrick’s flood. The following was entered on the records of the court of quarter sessions of Luzerne county, and is quoted from Stewart Pearce’s "Annals of Luzerne:"

"In Re St. Patrick’s flood in Susquehanna river, 17th and 18th March, A.D. 1865.

"Now, 29th of August, A.D. 1865, the following record is submitted to the court for preservation among its records, to wit: "’WILKES-BARRE, 26th August, 1865.

"’HON. JOHN N. CONYNGHAM, President Judge of Luzerne county:

"’From levels from explorations for rail route from the Lehigh valley to this valley, by C.F. Mercur, Esq.,

"’I find the elevations above tide-water of the doorsills of the court-house………543.102 feet.

"’Low water in the Susquehanna river……………………………………………….512.9 feet.

"’High water in the Susquehanna river, 18th March, 1865…………………………537.6 feet.

"’Door-sill of the court-house above the high water, 18th March, 1865……………..5.5 feet.

"’Rise of water in the flood of 17th and 18th March, 1865, at Wilkes-Barre……….24.7 feet.

"’And the general opinion is that the flood of 1865 was four feet higher than the pumpkin flood of October, A.D. 1786.

"’Respectfully submitted,


"Certified from the records, this sixth day of February, A.D. 1866.

[SEAL] "E.B. COLLINGS, Clerk."


As bee culture has awakened considerable interest in some parts of the county, it will be interesting to note the first swarms of bees of which record has been made which came into this county.

In the Advocate, a paper published for a short time in Rome borough, in 1869, is the following paragraph: "We are credibly informed that the first honey-bees ever owned and domesticated and cared for anywhere in this section of the county, were hived by Joshua Vought, of this place (Rome). Mr. Vought says, ‘Sixty years ago this coming 4th of July, while hoeing corn on the side-hill near the steam-mill, above town, a swarm of wild bees came flying over, which I took the necessary measures to hive, and which were the first bees ever known in this county, and the same stock of bees still exist in this community and are doing well.’"

Some time about 1801, Mrs. Case, of Troy, found a "bee-tree" in which a swarm of bees had taken possession of the forks of a hemlock. The extreme length of the comb was nearly twelve feet, and two hundred pounds of strained honey were obtained from that very long, narrow, but rich bee-hive.


In the early history of the county wild animals were numerous. Hunting was then a matter of absolute necessity: of the bear and deer to furnish food for the family, of the wolf and panther to protect the flocks from their incursions. As the settlement of the county progressed, the supplies of food were derived from other sources, while the more destructive sorts had learned to fear the rifle and retired into the more unfrequented places, the deeper woods and the darker glens. Hunting became more a matter of amusement and sport than of necessity. In addition to this a considerable bounty was offered for the killing of destructive wild animals, which, on the presentation of the proper proofs, was paid from the county treasury. In the year 1818 three great hunts were planned for the part of the county east of the river, and which embraced also a part of Susquehanna county. Mrs. Perkins, in "Early Times," thus describes one of these: "When the New York and Pennsylvania boys engaged in a grand deer hunt in this beautiful valley, in the fall of 1818, it was a gala day, such as they seldom enjoyed. The necessary plans and arrangements had all been matured. Fires had been lighted on the North mountains the previous night, and the hounds sent out early to drive the deer to the plains. Marshals for the day had been chosen to lead their respective bands. The appointed day anxiously looked for arrived, when about two hundred men, armed with guns and rifles, sallied forth from their homes in the early morning to engage in the exciting sport. A circle of men, several miles in extent, was to be formed on the broad plains between the Susquehanna and Chemung rivers, extending beyond the hills on the north and to the southern limit of the pine woods on the south. They were to move in uniform time and regular order towards one common centre, driving before them the deer that traversed the plains and hills, and were thus surrounded by the hunters or hemmed in by the rivers.

"The marshals of the day, at the head of their respective commands, and clothed with due authority for the occasion, mounted their steeds and rode forth at early dawn, each having under command about one hundred men. Mr. Elias Mathewson, leading the Pennsylvanians, posted his men along the borders of the pine forest below Mile hill, extending his line from river to river, about two miles above the junction of the two streams.

"The line of the New York men was stretched from the Chemung river, near Buckville, across the river to Shepard’s creek, on the north, all being at their posts and in due order of readiness. At the appointed time the march commenced. Highly excited, the men on both sides pressed forward, eager for the game, watching every hillock and glen, and scouring every thicket which might serve as a hiding-place for the deer. Often, a lusty buck was started from his retreat. Here and there through the forest the timid doe and fawn might be seen darting away from their pursuers, who, still urging them forward from every quarter, were driving and pressing them towards the place of rendezvous, a point not far from the centre of the present village of Waverly. Occasionally an animal more fortunate than the rest would break through the ring, and make his escape, but this only added to the excitement and eagerness of the hunters. The men were not to shoot any of the game until orders were given. But now the lines close in as they approach the rendezvous from every side. Quite a number of deer are discovered to be within the ring, excitement is at its height, and orders are given to fire. The woods ring with the report of the musket and the crack of the rifle. Many a noble buck is brought down. Some of them stand at bay for a while, but all in vain; while the cringing doe and helpless fawn become an easy prey to the pitiless foe, who give no quarter at such a time. As they approached the centre of the ring (said to be near where the Waverly foundry now stands), the excitement increased to rashness and recklessness. In their great anxiety to secure the whole of the game, the hunters shot in every direction.

"’In the heat of excitement men do not stop to consider,’ and suddenly it was announced that a man was wounded. This arrested the attention of all for a time, such an interlude not having been in the programme. The marshals ordered a cessation of firing, and the eager inquiry, ‘Who is it?’ went round the circle. The unfortunate hunter thought himself desperately, if not fatally, wounded, and the woods resounded with his piteous cries. Great was the consternation, and deep the sympathy among his friends and neighbors. The surgeon examined the wound with great caution, and not a little of anxiety. As he removed the garments, anxious friends were relived upon ascertaining that it was not a serious wound; indeed, it proved to be rather a slight one, from which the man soon recovered. ‘Big Decker’ also narrowly escaped being shot, a ball having struck a tree where he was standing, about six inches over his head. His ire being a little aroused, he asked to borrow a gun, having none of his own, to return the fire. But better counsels prevailed, and all was calm again. The business of the day had not yet come to an end. There were about thirty slaughtered animals to be cared for still---skinned, dressed, and divided among the men, that each might have his due share of the spoils and results of the day. This was the drudgery of the hour, but skilled hands applied themselves to the work with a will, and it was soon accomplished. Distribution was then made of a part, the remainder sold at vendue, and the men dispersed to their several homes, glad to rest, and with the coming of the night all was quiet and still."

In the early part of December of this year, another and more general hunt was agreed upon. The description found in the journal of Col. Stevens, of Stevensville, is so vivid, and having the advantage of being made at the time, it will be quoted from at length, premising that the general arrangements resembled the one described by Mrs. Perkins. But to the journal. "Friday, 4 (December)----Clear and heavy frost. This day the agreed hunt takes place, several hundred men having volunteered to engage in it. The ground is marked out, and is as follows: Beginning on the Susquehanna road from Wysox down the river to the road that leads up the Wyalusing creek, up the creek eight miles to a road that runs across to Wysox, and then down the Wysox to the place of beginning. This part of the wilderness is about ten miles square. In this square is a circle marked out and agreed upon to bring the game to. No one is to fire a gun until he comes to that ring in the centre, except at a bear or wolf." The orders of the day, which were published some time beforehand, were that every man was to be on the lines at eight o’clock A.M., and bring as many tin horns as could be found. The men being arranged were to march at the sound of the horn. One captain was appointed for every ten men. The horn was first to sound at Wysox, then down the line to Wyalusing, up the creek and around the whole square. The march was to begin with the first blast of the horns. The signals were to be given at short intervals until the centre was reached. Mr. Stevens says, "I stood and listened. It took about thirty minutes to pass the signals around the line. The men marched with guns, axes, spears, and pitchforks." It was night before the place of rendezvous was reached and the game dispatched, and the greater part of the company remained on the ground all night.

The incidents which have been related of this day’s sport are some thrilling and some laughable. The line on which the whole party, and there were eight or nine hundred of them, were to halt, was a circle about one mile across, inclosing a hill, near the centre of the area formed by the outside line, and about a mile south of the State road. Within this circle were bears, deer, wolves, and foxes; how many of each never were known, as many of them broke through the ring and escaped. In one place, where the line was not closed, more than thirty thus regained their liberty. About one hundred and fifty deer were killed, and it was thought as many escaped. There were also several bears and wolves killed. The hill which the men encircled was covered with beech, free from underbrush, and of regular ascent. The excitement, as the deer endeavoring to escape began to be shot down, was intense. The men were marched slowly until they could see the heads of those on the opposite side of the hill, when they were commanded not to fire another gun. There was then one deer, one bear, and one fox in the circle. The men advanced upon them with a savage yell, blowing their horns and shells until they took the field, gave three cheers, and named it "Slaughter Hill," a name it has ever since borne. In killing the bear the men belabored him with their clubs, but he paid but little attention to their cudgeling, and would have escaped had not two men standing outside the ring shot him. Col. Theron Darling, quite a tall man, was standing on the top of a steep bank, near the foot of the hill, when an old doe, that had been slightly wounded, came down with a determination to break the ranks. The men by this time had got so close together that they stood shoulder to shoulder. The deer, discovering a larger opening between the colonel’s legs than anywhere else, put down her head and attempted to pass through. The colonel fell forward and clasped his arms around her, and away they both went down the bank a couple of rods, the colonel feet foremost. Being a good soldier, he did not relinquish his hold until he got the deer down and cut its throat.

There was much dissatisfaction expressed by many of the parties who engaged in this hunt, and so many were the charges of dishonesty and fraud made against some parties living along the river that the hunt was never repeated.

On the 18th of December of this year (1818) another hunt was arranged to take place in the east portion of Susquehanna county. The country surrounded was that lying between the north and east branches of the Wyalusing creek, from the forks to the turnpike which runs from Montrose to Owego. On account of the extremely cold weather which happened at this time, there were not more than three hundred men present, which was not enough to inclose the area described, so that many wolves and bears escaped. Only about thirty deer were killed. The small number of men, and the large tract of country to be inclosed, rendered the plan a failure.

This was the last attempt at any general hunt of which the writer has any knowledge.


In the general assembly of the State of Pennsylvania, Sept. 20, 1783, the house elected William Maclay, James Wilkinson, and William Montgomery "to examine the navigation of the Susquehanna river to the sources of the same, and ascertain, as near as conveniently may be, where the northern boundary of the State may fall, particularly whether any part of Lake Erie is within the State of Pennsylvania, taking particular notes of the nature and geography of the county as to the practicability of roads, water-carriage, air, soil, natural productions, etc." Whether any steps were taken this year to ascertain the boundary-line does not appear, but Sept. 20, 1784, the assembly reappointed this same commission for the same purpose, expressed in almost the same language. Aug. 11, 1785, the supreme executive council audit the bill of William Maclay, Esq., as late commissioner for negotiating a treaty with the Indians, also as one of the commissioners for running the northern boundary of the State, and Aug. 17, 1785, an order was drawn in his favor "for fifty-nine pounds, seven shillings, and four-pence half-penny, being a balance due to him upon a settlement of his accounts as late one of the Indian commissioners, and a commissioner for ascertaining the northern boundary, according to the comptroller-general’s report." Excepting a reference to the temporary boundary-line of the State, made in a warrant of survey, these seem to be all the facts on record relating to it.

The assembly, Feb. 18, 1785, after conference with the commissioners, declare that in their opinion there is need for ascertaining more accurately the boundary-line between this and the State of New York, and direct the supreme executive council to communicate with the governor of the State of New York and request the appointment of a joint commission to run a temporary line between the two States. The State of New York very promptly met the overture, and, having recited that in 1774 Samuel Holland and David Rittenhouse did fix upon the point on the Delaware river which was on the parallel of 42° north latitude, direct that the joint commission shall proceed from that point and ascertain the line of jurisdiction between the two States. In April the governor of New York was informed that David Rittenhouse and Andrew Porter had been appointed, on the part of Pennsylvania, commissioners "for ascertaining our common boundary." On the 12th of October, 1786, the commissioners reported that they had completed the line to the 89th milestone, which carries the survey beyond the limits of our county. It was finished in 1787. Stones, properly marked, were set up at the end of every mile on the whole line. (These stones were marked with the number of miles from the Delaware river; on the north side of the stone, with the letters N.Y.; on the south side, Pa.) These are frequently referred to in surveys and descriptions of boundaries on the State line.

The boundary-line was thought to have been very accurately run, but quite a number of the milestones having been broken down, and some question arising as to where the division-line between the two States was located, in 1877 another joint commission was appointed. More delicately adjusted instruments and more careful astronomical observations revealed the fact that the general course of the line was not always the same, nor were any two of the milestones in precisely the same line. Negotiations growing out of this report are now pending between the two States.

Another important survey, which has affected the lines of the county, has been of the great river which runs through the entire breadth of its territory. The east line of the purchase of the Susquehanna company was described as running ten miles east of the North Branch of the Susquehanna, and parallel to it. In order to know something about where this line would lie, a preliminary survey of the river was made in 1754 or 1755, by John Jenkins, for the company. In 1786, however, the line of both the Tioga and Susquehanna was run accurately, and a map of the course of the two rivers was made. Other surveys have been made of parts of the stream for the purpose of determining warrant or township lines, but no other extended survey of these streams has come to the knowledge of the author.


The Erie railway, though nowhere coming within the lines of the county, yet at Waverly comes within a very few rods of the county line, and was the first railroad which directly affected the trade or travel of any considerable portion of our people. This road, running the whole length and near the northern boundary of the county, afforded a convenient outlet to the inhabitants of the whole northern tier of townships in the county. An examination of the drainage of the county will show that the streams of the northern portion of it flow to the north, into the Susquehanna or Chemung. The Erie railway was laid along the banks of these latter streams, and the highways were laid along the banks of the smaller ones, so that Binghamton, Owego, Smithboro, Waverly, Wellsboro, and Elmira became convenient depots for the trade and travel of our people living on the northern border. This railway was opened for business in 1849, and from this date this part of our county has enjoyed the advantages of easy access to this great thoroughfare.

The Erie canal, which connected New York with the great lakes, and opened up a great highway of traffic between that city and the vast prairie-region of the west, resulted in such marked commercial advantages that Philadelphia capitalists were anxious to open a competing line for the trade of this rapidly-growing region. It was a pet scheme of old Nicholas Biddle to connect Philadelphia and the lakes by a line of railway, which would afford more direct and much quicker transportation than by the canal. One of the links in this scheme of railways was the Williamsport and Elmira railroad. This was built as far as Ralston in 1832, with wooden rails having on their top a strap of iron. In 1853-54 the present railroad was opened from Williamsport to Elmira. It has since passed into the hands of the management of the Northern Central railroad, and the whole line from Baltimore to Canandaigua now goes by the name of its corporate management, the "Northern Central." By the opening of this line the western portion of the county was enabled to enjoy the advantages of railroad communication. There are in this county depots at Grover, Canton, Minnequa, Alba, Granville Summit, Troy, Columbia Cross-Roads, Gillett’s, State Line, and one or two others. The road passes through the townships of Canton, Granville, Troy, Columbia, and South Creek.

The Erie canal had proved such a successful enterprise, that the question of canals soon began to be agitated in Pennsylvania. As early as 1828 public meetings were held, and public sentiment began to be created, in favor of a canal along the Susquehanna. Every scheme for navigating the river had proved a failure; the canal was desired as the only feasible means of developing the whole North Branch region. The route was surveyed in 1830; some years after the work was begun and partly finished, then suspended and begun again. After a time public sentiment underwent a complete change. The canals had been a continual expense, had entailed a heavy debt upon the State, been a foot-ball among politicians, and yielded little or no revenue, were more expensive and of less value than railroads, so that those who were once most eager for their construction were now the warmest advocates for the sale. In 1858, an act was passed authorizing the sale of the North Branch division to the Sunbury and Erie railroad company; and the sale was effected, for $3,500,000.

This same year a company of capitalists consisting of Welles, Mercur, Hollenback and others, from Bradford and Luzerne counties, was formed for the purpose of purchasing that part of the canal on the North Branch from Wilkes-Barre to the State line. The purchase was effected; the canal, however, had been completed, and in the autumn of 1856 a few boat-loads of coal were brought up. The canal proved to be a very imperfect and uncertain affair. It was badly constructed. Dishonest contractors, it was alleged, had done their work in a very inferior manner. The canal was dug through the loose soil and rocks on the river-bank, through which there was a heavy leakage into the river. It took a great deal of water, and created a strong current to supply the great waste of water, so that it was a difficult matter to keep the canal filled. Against this heavy current nearly all the freight must be carried. Then, on account of the bad work done in the construction, the banks were frequently giving way, causing detention to the boats and expense to the company. In the fall of the year, when there was usually the most use for the canal, the river was apt to be so low that water enough to fill "the ditch" could not be had. From these and other causes the expediency of a railroad began to be considered, and the Pennsylvania and New York Railroad and Canal Company was organized as the successor of the canal company, with the privilege of constructing a railroad on the towing-path of the canal, and putting a new towing-path on the berm side of the canal. The railroad was surveyed in the summer of 1866, and the first train entered the village of Towanda Nov. 26, 1867. The road was opened from Wilkes-Barre to Waverly Sept. 20, 1869. At the latter point it connected with the Erie railway; at the former, with the Lehigh Valley railroad: in fact, the Pennsylvania and New York railroad is but an extension of the Lehigh Valley, both being controlled by the same parties, and under the same management. This road has opened up the eastern and central portions of the county, affording direct communication by rail with both New York and Philadelphia, and the coal and iron regions of the central parts of the State. By its various connections, superior facilities for travel are afforded to all who live near the line. There are, in this county, depots at Wyalusing, Frenchtown (Homet’s Ferry P.O., the old Indian Misiscum, and the later Fairbanks), Rummerfield, Standing Stone, Wysox, Towanda, Ulster, Milan, Athens, Sayre, and Waverly.

Two other railroads, which have passed under the same management, were opened in 1871 or ’72, viz., the Geneva, Ithaca and Sayre railroad and the Southern Central of New York, which connect with the Pennsylvania and New York at Sayre, making this place an important railroad centre.

In 1857 the Barclay railroad was opened from the Barclay mines to the canal basin at Towanda. On the completion of the Pennsylvania and New York railroad a junction was formed at Towanda, so that coal is transported from the mines, without reshipment, to any part of the country. This road has depots at Towanda, Monroeton, Greenwood, Weston’s, and the foot of the Plane.

In Sullivan county valuable beds of soft anthracite coal had been discovered, and in 1865 a company was organized for the purpose of constructing a railroad to them. The distance is twenty-eight miles, and the road was opened in 1871. The cars run on the Barclay railroad track from Towanda to Monroeton, where the Sullivan and State Line railroad begins, and follows the south branch of the Towanda to Dushore. There are depots at Towanda, Monroeton, Wilcox’s, New Albany, and Laddsburg, in this county.

Several other railroads have been projected, but at this writing none of them have given much assurance of ever being constructed.

The North Branch canal, which passed through so many vicissitudes, and for a period of more than forty years attracted so much attention from the people of this county, was by law, passed in 1872, allowed to be abandoned by the company, and since that time every trace of its existence is being removed as rapidly as possible.

In order to connect the North Branch canal with the canals of New York, sixteen miles of additional canal were necessary to construct, (for) which the Junction canal company was formed. Through the energy of Mr. Arnot of Elmira, Messrs. La Porte, Mason, and others of Towanda, Hollenback, Wright, and others of Wilkes-Barre, and Judge Mallory of Philadelphia, the connection was effected. The first boat that passed through it laden with coal was the "Tonawanda," Capt. A. Dennis, loaded with half-cargo and drawn by double team. With the abandonment of the North Branch canal this also became useless and worthless, and has been abandoned also.


At a meeting of the inhabitants of the township of Tioga, held on Oct. 3, 1794, took into consideration the cause of the disturbances in the four western counties of the State, and the measures pursuing by the general and State governments against them. Gen. Spalding, moderator, Obadiah Gore, clerk.

Voted, that the constitution of the United States is wisely calculated to secure the liberties of the people, and ought to be supported.

Voted, that the powers exercised by the legislature of the general government laying an excise, is strictly constitutional; that it is the duty of every citizen of the United States to support and maintain the laws of the United States; and that the executives of the general and State governments are justifiable in calling out the militia to enforce a due obedience to the laws.

Voted, that if there are existing faults in our constitution or laws, or abuses in the administration thereof, it is more easy and expedient to correct such faults or such abuses by constitutional means than to appeal to arms and cause a revolution in government.

Voted, that this meeting highly disapproves of the present opposition to the constitutional laws of the United States in some of the western counties of this State.

Voted, that we stand ready (if it be required) to turn out, personally, with our fellow citizens of this State, and of the United States, to support that free government under which we live.

Voted, that the foregoing votes be published for the information of our fellow citizens.



Below is given the census by townships of the first two and last two decades of our county since its organization. The blanks in the first two columns arise from the fact that many of the present townships were not then organized. Also the amount of the leading productions of the county. These tables are exceedingly instructive, as showing the increase in wealth and population of the county:
Athens township and borough
Burlington township and borough
Burlington, West    
Canton township and borough, and Alba borough
Columbia township and Sylvania borough
Le Roy    
Monroe township and borough  
Pike township and Le Raysville borough
Rome township and borough    
South Creek    
Standing Stone    
Towanda township and borough
Towanda, North    
Troy township and borough
  11,554 19,746 48,734 53,204

Since the organization of the county in 1813, there have been six enumerations, showing the following aggregates:
  Population Gain in ten years

In Watson’s Gazette, published in 1832, it is said the productions of the county are grain, flour, whisky, fruit, salted provisions, live-stock, and lumber. Now the chief productions are butter, hay, cattle, grain, potatoes, and lumber. The lumber, however, is constantly diminishing, as the forests are melting away before the woodman’s axe and the advancement made in clearing the land for agricultural productions. One cannot pass along any of the creeks but at every few miles may be seen the ruins of an old saw-mill, which, when the country was new, would have been running night and day, when there was water enough to saw, but now is useless.

The following table will indicate the increase in the chief productions and the amount for the years indicated:
Acres in farms, improved  
" ", unimproved  
Cash value, dollars  
Value of farming implements, dollars  
Number of horses
Neat cattle
Number of sheep
" " swine
Value of live-stock, dollars  
Bushels of wheat
" " rye
" " corn
" " oats
" " potatoes
" " barley
" " buckwheat
Pounds of butter  
" " cheese  
Tons of hay
Pounds of maple-sugar

It may also be interesting to compare the statistics of these years with those of our last census, 1870:
Acres, improved
" " unimproved
Cash value of land, dollars
Value of farming implements, dollars
" " live-stock, dollars 
Number of horses
" " neat cattle
" " sheep
" " swine
Bushels of wheat
" " rye
" " corn
" " oats
" " potatoes
" " barley
" " buckwheat
Pounds of wool
" " butter
" " cheese
Gallons of milk sold
Tons of hay
Pounds of maple-sugar
" " wax
" " honey

Bradford County PA
Chemung County NY
Tioga County PA

Published On Tri-Counties Site On 15 DEC 2003
By Joyce M. Tice

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Bibliographic data for your source citations: Craft, The Reverend David; 1770-1878 History of Bradford County, Pennsylvania with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Some of its Prominient Men and Pioneers, originally published 1878 by L. H. Everts & Co., Philadelphia, Reprint edition published by Tri-Counties Genelaolgy & History by Joyce M. Tice ( 1999-2004.