THE REVOLUTION-SULLIVAN’S CAMPAIGN
The Six Nations and their Neutrality, 1776-Their Declaration of War in 1777-Old Friends and British Gold-Washington and the Plan of the Campaign-Summary of the Expedition and its Results-Sullivan’s Army-His Brigadiers-The Battle of Chemung-The first Blow of the Campaign-General Clinton as an Engineer-A Flood without a Rain-The March from Tioga-Battle of Newtown-Tory Dead and Indian Scalps-The Location of the Battlefield-Half-Rations and Roasting Ears-Catherine’s Town and a Captive-A Generous Enemy-Fire and Axe-Plank Houses and Indian Orchards-Brave Defense-Capture, Torture, and Death of Boyd-Genesee-"About Face!"-The Return March-A Council of War-No Mercy to the Cuyugas-Their Country ravaged-Fort Stanwix decreed to Desolation-A Dastardly Act condemned-Fort Reed-The First Celebration in Chemung Valley-Programme of Exercises-A Jolly Time-Toasts-Big Flats destroyed-Return to Tioga-Salutes and Fetes-Departure of Oneida Guides-Winter Quarters-General Poor’s March to Owego and Choconut-An Image to be worshiped without Idolatry-General Sullivan retires.
The struggle for American Independence, made memorable by the sacrifices of its heroes and its far-reaching results, was not confined to the sea-board, or the settlements immediately contiguous thereto, nor yet to the borders, but its echoes reverberated amid the fastnesses of the Alleghanies, and its red tide of blood flowed in the rivers and moistened the soil of Western New York. At the opening of the Revolutionary war, on June 11, 1776, the Six Nations met General Schuyler in council at German Flats, where, after a grave and friendly discussion of the situation, the chiefs of the Confederacy agreed that they and their people should remain neutral in the struggle then began. This was all that the colonists desired of them. Subsequently, in July, 1777, the Confederacy met Sir John Johnson and Colonel Walter Butler and other English officers in council at Oswego, and upon the representations of those gentlemen as to the power of the king and the weakness of the colonists, the arguments the while being backed up by the exhibition of rewards promised for their adhesion to the royal cause, the Iroquois threw off the guise of neutrality and made an offensive and defensive alliance with the British cause. From thenceforward, under the command of Brant and Cornplanter, and in conjunction with Tory rangers led by the Butlers, Guy Johnson, and others, they ravaged our borders with a fiendish ferocity surpassed only by the bloodthirsty brutality of the renegade Tories beneath them. Wyoming, Cherry Valley, and the Minisink attest the bloody success and terrible visitation of the Iroquois. The terrible scenes and slaughter of Wyoming, July 3, 1778, brought a wail from every colony in the land, and roused a feeling for vengeance so deep and so imperative that even the great and magnanimous heart of Washington, whose affections and desires were all enlisted in the uplifting of the Indian, was checked in its generous impulses, and he calmly and wisely drew the plan of
THE SULLIVAN CAMPAIGN
A campaign so far-reaching in its anticipated results, so terrible in its proposed execution, its conception marks the great captain, however much of sorrow it must have cost the man. It was no less than meeting the Iroquois on their own ground, and, adopting their own desolating tactics, to lay waste their country, destroy their villages, burn up their crops, cut down their orchards, and thus break their power for future operations against the colonists. The chief command of the expedition was in-trusted to General Sullivan, though at first it was proposed to give it to General Gates. The army was to march from their winter quarters on the Hudson to Wyoming; thence up the Susquehanna to Tioga, where another division, under General James Clinton, marching via Otsego Lake, after a diversion into the Onondagas’ country was to effect a junction, when the combined army, consisting of four brigades of infantry and riflemen, and a park of artillery, was to proceed through the valley of the Chemung; thence northward to Genesee River, destroying crops and housed and everything of value to the Indian as far as could be reached on either side of the trail of the army.
The success of the expedition was most complete. Forty towns and more than 200,000 bushels of corn were destroyed, besides vast quantities of pumpkins, beans, melons, and other vegetables, and peach- and apple- orchards, and, a most desolating march executed through the richest portion of the enemy’s country, with small loss to the invaders. Washington was afterwards called by the Indians Hanodogarcar, -"the town destroyer."
One pitched battle was fought, and several skirmishes were had; the most distressing and shocking loss of ours being that of Lieutenant Boyd and his command of twenty-six men, of whom more than one-half were slain.
The campaign, in its results, realized the fullest anticipations of its projector. The Indians were most thoroughly overawed by the destruction of their country by an army they fully believed never could penetrate successfully twenty miles into it. They never again appeared in large numbers on any battle-field of the Revolution. They were driven north to Niagra by the destruction of their supplies, where, owing to the provisions issued to them by the garrison being salted, the scurvy broke out among them, and the winter being exceptionally severe, they died in large numbers, suffering excruciatingly. Terribly had the border settlements suffered from the ravages of the Confederacy, and most terribly were they avenged.
As the decisive battle of the campaign, and its opening movements which gave the first promise of success, were all within our territory, we herewith give extracts from the journals of certain officers connected with the campaign from the arrival at Tioga until its return there, after achieving the objects for which it was planned and organized.
Colonel Adam Hubley, of the 13th Pennsylvania Regiment, in
his journal, published in full in Miner’s "History of Wyoming," gives the
command of General Sullivan as follows:
General Hand’s brigade, Pennsylvania troops-Colonel Hubley’s and a German regiment, Colonel Shott’s and Spalding’s independent companies, Colonel Butler’s regiment of rangers, and Major Parr’s riflemen; General Maxwell’s brigade, New Jersey-Colonels Dayton, Shrieve, Ogden, and Spencer; General Poor’s brigade, New Hampshire-Colonels Cilley, Reed, Scammel* and Olden; General Clinton’s brigade, New York-Colonels Livingston, Dubois, Gainsworth** and Courtland. Colonel Proctor commanded the artillery, which came in with General Clinton. The force was 4000 strong.
*Colonel Dearborn was in this brigade, but is not named by Colonel Hubley.
The army, with General Sullivan, arrived at Tioga from Wyoming Aug. 11, 1779, where it awaited the arrival of General Clinton’s brigade and the artillery, from Otsego. In the mean time a fortification was thrown up, running across the point of land between the two rivers, the Tioga and Susquehanna, some 190 yards, behind which the army lay safe from attack.
On the 11th scouts were sent out to discover the whereabouts of the enemy, and returned on the 12th, reporting him at Old Chemung, twelve miles above, and an expedition was at once prepared and ordered forward for the capture of the place. The three brigades (with the exception of two regiments left to guard the works and supply-trains), all under the command of General Sullivan, marched at eight P.M. on the 12th, but owing to the darkness of the night, the absence of roads, and the lack of proper guides, the command did not arrive at Chemung until after daylight. "Even then," says Colonel Hubley, "our pilot, on our arrival, from some disagreeable emotions he felt, could not find the town." However, another hour’s march brought them to the main town, and the morning being a foggy one, dispositions of the troops were made to surprise it, but on reaching it, at five A.M., it was found evacuated. General Hand then pushed forward Captain Bush and his infantry company of Colonel Hubley’s regiment for about a mile, who discovered fires burning, and the balance of the regiment and the two independent companies were brought up and an advance of another mile was made, when the Indians, ambushed on a high hill, fired upon them. Captain Bush immediately attempted to flank the savages, while the colonel led the rest of his regiment directly up the hill, the men pressing forward with great intrepidity, under a severe fire. The Indians, seeing the determination evinced by the troops, retreated before Captain Bush could gain their rear, and carried off their dead and wounded. The ground beyond being unfavorable for pursuit, the retreating savages escaped. The loss, which, with the exception of two, fell wholly on Colonel Hubley’s regiment, was as follows: two captains, -Walker and Carberry, -Adjutant Huston, a guide, and eight privates wounded, and one sergeant, one drummer, and four privates killed. Generals Poor and Maxwell’s brigades were also fired upon, and lost one man killed and several wounded. Major John Franklin, of Wyoming, was also seriously wounded. The town, which consisted of about seventeen houses, and several fine fields of corn, were destroyed.
The dead were brought back to Tioga on the 13th, the day of the battle, and on the 14th buried with full military honors. "Parson Rogers delivered a small discourse on the occasion," says the journalist.
On the 15th August, Sunday, a column of 700 men under command of General Poor, was ordered to march up the Susquehanna to meet General Clinton on his march down to Tioga, and on Monday the command left on its mission. During the absence of General Poor alarms were of daily occurrence, and though not resulting seriously to any great extent, yet they served to keep the army on the qui vice, expecting an attack hourly.
On the 22d, General Clinton, with a flotilla of 220 boats and 1500 men, accompanied by General Poor and his column, arrived at Tioga, and was received with joyous demonstrations. He had been delayed by his raid into the Onondagas’ country, and arrived at the outlet of Otsego Lake late in the season, to find the summer heats had diminished the water therein to such an extent as to preclude the passage of his boats, loaded with his artillery and supplies. But nothing daunted, this leader, fruitful in expedients and skillful in woodcraft, at once contrived a plan to increase the carrying power of the Susquehanna as unique as it proved successful. He threw a dam across the outlet of the lake, cleared the same of its drift-wood, launched his boats, and when the waters in the lake had gained as heavy a head as his dam would bear, he cut the latter, and on the flood of waters that rushed out floated to Tioga, the waters at that point setting back up the Tioga some distance. The sight of a freshet in the Susquehanna when there had been no rain for weeks excited the superstitious awe of the Indians, and they fled from before the soldier favored, as they believed, by the Great Spirit, and against themselves.
On the 24th of August the army were busily engaged in making bags out of their tents to carry their flour in, and in preparing for the expedition northward into the Indian country. Colonel Butler’s regiment and Major Parr’s riflemen joined the light corps, which formed the advance. Colonel Shreve was left in command of Fort Sullivan, and the line of march was taken up at eleven A.M., August 26, in the following order: light corps, commanded by General Hand, marched in six columns, the right held by Colonel Butler and the left by Colonel Hubley. Major Parr, with the riflemen, covered the entire front a short distance in advance, and reconnoitered every suspicious looking spot or point of advantage for the concealment of an enemy, to prevent surprise or an ambuscade. The pioneers followed next preceding the artillery, and the main army followed in two columns, in the center of which moved the pack-horses and cattle, the whole flanked right and left by divisions commanded by Colonels Dubois and Ogden; the rear was brought up by General Clinton’s brigade. The army moved three miles and encamped, and the 27th marched in the same order six miles, and encamped at the "lower end of Chemung," near the narrows, where Colonel Hubley says he "made an agreeable repast of corn, potatoes, beans, cucumber, watermelons, squashes, and other vegetables which grew in abundance there."
August 28 was spent in reconnoitering and to find a ford for the artillery and trains, to avoid a high hill over which General Poor and General Clinton marched with their brigades. The ford was made and the river recrossed still farther up, and the army encamped at six o’clock, having made but two miles’ advance. Scouts reported the enemy in force at Newtown and evidently intending to give battle. On Sunday, August 20, the march was resumed in the same order as on the 26th, the riflemen covering the advance of the light corps, which moved with the greatest precision and caution. On arriving near the ridge on which the action of the 13th commenced the advance discovered several Indians, one of whom fired upon the column, and the
BATTLE OF NEWTOWN
was opened. The Indians fled, and the advance pushed on for about a mile and into marshy ground, where it again drew the fire of the Indians, who again retreated. Major Parr then begun to take even more precautions than he had before done, and ordered one of his men to climb a tree. The order was obeyed, and the lookout soon discovered the movements of some Indians, whose paint rendered them conspicuous, behind an extensive breastwork nearly half a mile in length, and artfully concealed by green boughs and trees, their right secured by the river, and their left by a high hill or mountain. It was situated on a rising ground about one hundred yards in front of a difficult stream of water, bounded by the marshy ground before mentioned on our side, and between it and the breastwork was an open and clear field. Major Parr immediately gave intelligence to General Hand of his discoveries, who immediately advanced the light corps within about three hundred yards of the enemy’s works, and formed in line of battle; the rifle corps, under cover, advanced, and lay under the bank of the creek, within one hundred yards of the lines. General Sullivan, having previous notice, arrived with the main army, and ordered the following disposition to take place: the riflemen and light corps to continue their position; the left flanking division, under the command of Colonel Ogden, to take post on the left flank of the light corps; and General Maxwell’s brigade, some distance in the rear, as a corps ed reserve; and Colonel Proctor’s artillery in front of the center of the light corps, and immediately opposite the breastwork. A heavy fire ensued between the rifle corps and the enemy, but little damage was done on either side. In the mean time, Generals Poor and Clinton’s brigades, with the right flanking division, were ordered to march and gain if possible the enemy’s flank and rear, whilst the rifle and light corps amused them in front. Colonel Proctor had orders to be in readiness with his artillery and attack the lines, first allowing a sufficient space of time to Generals Poor and Clinton to gain their intended stations.
"About three o’clock P.M. the artillery began the attack on the enemy’s works, the rifle and light corps in the meantime prepared to advance and charge; but the enemy, finding their situation rather precarious and our troops determined, left and retreated from their works with the greatest precipitation, leaving behind them a number of blankets, gun covers, and kettles with corn boiling over the fire. Generals Poor and Clinton, on account of several difficulties which they had to surmount, could not effect their designs; and the enemy, probably having intelligence of their approach, posted a number of troops on the top of a mountain over which they had to advance. On their arrival near the summit of the same the enemy gave them a fire, and wounded several officers and soldiers. General Poor pushed on and gave them a fire as they retreated, and killed five of the savages."
Captain Daniel Livermore, of General Poor’s brigade, gives the following account of the part taken by his brigade in the battle: "General Poor’s brigade is sent round their left flank to gain the enemy’s rear, which he nearly completed, falling in with their flank, or rather their main body, lying off in the woods in order to cut off our rear. A very warm action ensued between about 600 chosen savages, commanded by Brand and Captain Butler, of the Queen’s Rangers, and Poor’s brigade, commanded by himself in person. The brigade marched on with coolness with charged bayonets, not a gun being fired till within a short distance, when the enemy were obliged to give back, leaving their dead on the ground, amounting to about 20. We took three prisoners. At sunset, after a complete victory, encamp near the field of action, carrying off our dead and wounded. Among the latter was Major Titcomb, Captain Clayes, Lieutenant McCauley, and about 30 others." The killed amounted to about four or five. During the whole of the action Colonel Reed’s and Colonel Dearborn’s regiments fared the hardest. Lieutenant McCauley died of his wounds August 30."
Among the wounded of the American troops, too, was Ensign Thomas Baldwin, afterwards Colonel Thomas Baldwin, of Ulster, Pa., and still later, in 1787, a resident on or near the battlefield whereon he received the British token of brotherly affection, the bullet. The number of killed was four, including Lieutenant McCauley, who died of his wounds, and 33 wounded. It was ascertained that besides the nine Indian dead left on the field, seven of the Tories also were slain, and that the enemy acknowledged to having suffered severely.
There has been some dispute in times past as to the exact location of the battle-field of Newtown, but the best authorities agree that it was from seven to eight miles below Elmira, at a point called Hogsback. Ephraim Bennett, who was an officer in the Revolution, located his farm in 1794 on the old battleground at Hogsback, and lived there until 1799, at which time the fortifications were distinctly visible.
The further progress of the army, according to Colonel Hubley, was as follows:
Monday, August 30, was spent by the army in destroying the extensive cornfields on the plains and the vegetables, which were also abundant. The army drew eight days’ rations, the soldiers doing their own carrying for the lack of packhorses. There seemed to have been a sad lack of proper management in the commissary department, which, considering the great abundance of forage and supplies destroyed belonging to the enemy, is difficult to find a good reason for, looking at it from the stand-point of to-day. General Sullivan requested the troops to content themselves with half-rations of flour and beef as long as the necessity for such reduction existed, and while the enemy’s country furnished abundant supplies of corn and vegetables, the soldiers very cheerfully complied with the reasonable request, and pushed on with alacrity in the accomplishment of their work.
On Tuesday, August 31, the march was resumed, and about noon crossed the Chemung at the junction of Newtown Creek, where an Indian village stood, which was destroyed, as also furniture, which was discovered hidden away. The march was continued till five P.M., when the army encamped on the plains on the site of the present village of Horseheads. On Wednesday, September 1, the transit of the swamp before reaching Havana was made, occupying all the day and a greater part of the night, the encampment being made at Catherine’s town, which was evacuated by the enemy precipitately, Queen Catherine Montour fleeing with the rest. The passage of the swamp was most difficult, and several packhorses and cattle were killed in effecting it. An old squaw was left in the flight, her age preventing the Indians from taking her with them. She was found by the command, and upon examination said that the women and children had fled to the mountains to await the passage of the army, under the promise of Butler to send warriors afterwards to conduct them to a place of safety, and that before they went there was a sharp contention between the women and warriors, the former desiring to submit to the generosity of the troops, and the latter being opposed to it. The old squaw was provided with provisions and wood, and a hut erected for her, the entire village of fifty houses being destroyed before her discovery. The colonel says " All these favors had such an effect on her that it drew tears from her savage eyes." From this point villages were destroyed on the east side of Seneca Lake, the first one being twelve miles from Catherine’s town, September 3, a place called Canadia, September 5, where a prisoner captured the year before, was retaken by our forces, who informed the general "that Brant with near 1000 savages, including Butler’s rangers, left that town on the Friday before (September 3), seemingly much frightened and fatigued; that they were pushing for Kanadauga (Canandaigua), where they meant to make a stand and give battle." He further stated that, "exclusive of a considerable number of savages killed and wounded in the action of the 29th, seven Tories were killed; that all of their wounded and some of their dead were carried in canoes up the Cayuga branch, and that they allowed they had sustained a heavy loss in that action." Canadia was a fine village of forty well-finished houses, with everything about it neat and well improved. A village was destroyed on the 4th by some stragglers, who, having lost their way, came upon the same in the woods, and gave it to the flames. Kanadasaga (Geneva) was reached September 7, and given to the torch with its grand council-house and fifty comfortable dwellings, its fine apple-orchard girdled, and its immense corn-fields destroyed, after drawing largely from them for supplies. Gaglisiungua met with a like fate September 8, and on the 9th a detachment of fifty men left for Tioga as an escort for the sick and disabled, who were encumbering the army in its march. Kanadalaugua, a village of between forty and fifty well-built houses, chiefly of hewn plank, and extensive corn-fields, were destroyed September 10, and Anyayea was added to the list on the 12th. It was a village of a dozen or more hewn-log houses, and was made a post garrisoned with fifty men, composed of soldiers unable to march, and the stores of flour and ammunition left there, while the rest of the army pushed on for Genesee, the capital of the Senecas, and the last objective-point of the expedition.
September 12 the little village of Kanagsas, comprising about 10 houses, was reached, and given to the flames the next day. On the evening of the 12th, Lieutenant Boyd and his command of 26 men, and the Oneida, Henjost, were sent out to reconnoiter, and on the 13th met with their tragic fate, 15 of the 28, including Boyd and the Oneida guide, being killed outright, or most inhumanly tortured and murdered; Boyd and Sergeant Parker being stabbed in more than twenty places, scalped, their tongues torn out, eyes put out, and heads cut off. On the 13th the army reached the town of Gaghsaugnilahery, where the enemy seemed determined to make a stand; but the line of battle was formed, and the advance ordered, when the Indians fled from the town across the river, without further show of resistance. On the 14th this town and its extensive corn-fields were destroyed, and the capital of the Senecas was entered without a blow being struck. On the 15th, General Sullivan issued his congratulatory orders, announcing the successful accomplishment of the immediate objects of the expedition, and gave the command for "about face for Tioga," and the return march began the same day. A captive woman and her child came into camp before the army left Genesee, who were captured at Wyoming. All along the line of march from Tioga to Genesee the corn-fields and vegetables of all kinds were destroyed, root and branch, except such as were used for supplies for the army. On the 16th the woods were reconnoitered for the bodies of the men slain of Boyd’s party, and 14 found, scalped and mangled, including the Indian guide. On the 19th an express reached the army from Tioga, bringing the news of the declaration of war by Spain against England, and, what was just then of more importance, and far more pleasurable to this army, the news that a good supply of commissary stores was awaiting them at Newtown. On the 20th the general and his officers held a council of war with some Oneidas, who were friendly with the colonists, and had interceded for the Cayugas, who had heretofore been acting with the Senecas, but were desirous then to make peace with the general. Terms of peace were denied, and a command of 500 infantry, under Major Parr, was sent off to ravage the Cayuga settlements that lay along their lake, as the Seneca settlements had been, and to receive none of the Cuyugas but as prisoners of war. Colonel Smith, with 200 men, was dispatched down the west side of Seneca Lake to destroy Gausiunque, a village eight miles above Kanadasaga (Geneva), and Colonel Gainsworth, with 100 men, was dispatched to Fort Stanwix on the same mission, and then to make his way to the headquarters on the Hudson.*
On the 21st, Colonel Dearborn, of General Poor’s brigade, with 200 men, marched to destroy a Cuyuga town, on the north side of the lake. On the 22d the army reached Catherine’s town again, where the ancient Seneca squaw was found comfortably fixed, and to whom the gallant general in command gave another generous supply of meat and flour, whereat her "savage eyes" again gleamed with the thankfulness her tongue could scarcely express. Colonel Hubley records, in words of just condemnation, this fact:
During our absence from this place a young squaw came and attended on the old one, but some inhuman villain, who passed through, killed her. What made this crime still more heinous was because a manifesto was left with the old squaw positively forbidding any violence or injury should be committed on the women or children of the savages, by virtue of which it appears this young squaw came to this place; which absolutely comes under the virtue of a breach of faith, and the offender ought to be severely punished." Colonel Hubley went with other officers to view the beauties of Watkins Glen. He was in raptures over its picturesque waterfall and gorge, as many have been since. On the 24th the army reached the post and supplies at what Colonel Hubley names "Kannwaluhery," and which Captain Livermore calls "Fort Reed." Colonel Gainsvoort says, "Arrived at the forks of Newtown, where Captain Reed, with a detachment of 200 men, had thrown up a breastwork to guard some stores and cattle brought forward from Tioga for the army in case of necessity."**
*Captain Livermore says Colonel Vant Cort-meaning, doubtless, Colonel Courtland-went to Fort Stanwix.
**This fortification thrown up by Captain Reed ran along the back of Newtown Creek, as far up the same as the present bridge, below the Aruet Mills; thence ran westwardly on the south side of the road from 60 to 80 rods; thence to the river, and then down the river to the mouth of the creek, inclosing an area of three or four acres, and surrounded by palisades.
The garrison of Fort Reed saluted the victorious troops with a round of thirteen guns, the artillery of Colonel Proctor returning the compliment.
On the 25th of September the army held
THE FIRST CELEBRATION
probably ever held in the Chemung Valley by white men of a public event, the same being the declaration of war by Spain against England, whereby the former became the ally of the colonies. Connected with this occasion was another cause for particular rejoicing, and that was, as Colonel Hubley expresses it, "the generous proceedings of the present Congress, in augmenting the subsistence of the officers and men of the army." Over all, too, was the glamour of victory, the knowledge of full success gained, and with comparatively small loss (less than fifty being killed or died from sickness in the whole campaign), and the homeward march now wellnigh completed. Under these circumstances, we can appreciate the feelings and enter into the spirit of the soldiers at the execution of the following
PROGRAMME OF EXERCISES.
General Sullivan ordered five head of the best cattle to be distributed, "one for the use of the officers of each brigade, with five gallons of spirits each, to be delivered to them respectively, thereby giving them an opportunity of testifying their joy on this occasion." Salutes in the evening. The whole drawn up and fired a feu-de-joie, thirteen rounds from the artillery leading off; and followed by a running fire through the whole line, and repeated a second time, with three cheers, "one for the United States of America, one for Congress, and one for our new ally the King of Spain."
The army being dismissed, General Hand, with the officers of his brigade and those of the artillery, "repaired to a bowery erected for that purpose, where the fatted bullock was served up (dressed in various ways); the whole seated themselves on the ground around the same, which afforded them a most agreeable repast. The officers being very jovial, the evening was spent in great mirth and jollity."
After dinner there were drank to the music of drums and fifes the following
" 1st. The Thirteen States and their sponsors.
" 2d. The honorable the American Congress.
" 3d. General Washington and the American army.
"4th. The Commander-in-chief of the western expedition.
"5th. The American navy.
"6th. Our faithful allies, the united houses of Bourbon.
"7th. May the American Congress and all her legislative representatives be endowed with virtue and wisdom! And may her independence be as firmly established as the pillars of time!
"8th. May the citizens of America and her soldiers be ever unanimous in the reciprocal support of each other!
"9th. May altercations, discord, and every degree of fraud be totally banished the peaceful shores of America!
"10th. May the memory of the brave Lieutenant Boyd and the soldiers under his command, who were horribly massacred by the inhuman savages, or by their more barbarous and detestable allies, the British and Tories, on the 13th inst., be ever dear to this country!
"11th. An honorable peace with America or perpetual war with her enemies.
"12th. May the kingdom of Ireland merit a stripe in the American standard!
"13th. May the enemies of America be metamorphosed into pack-horses, and sent on a western expedition against the Indians!*
At eleven A.M. of the 25th, Colonel Dearborn came in from his raid on Cayuga Lake, having destroyed several villages and a large quantity of fine corn. He also brought in two squaws as prisoners. On the 27th an expedition of infantry and some thirty boats proceeded up the Chemung to destroy the crops and villages in that direction, Captain Livermore being in command of the flotilla; but owing to the low stage of water they could only get as far as Big Flats, and loading their boats with corn and vegetables, they destroyed the balance and returned. Two of Colonel Hubley’s men, who lost the regiment at Canandaigua Lake on the 18th, after wandering for seven days in the woods found the army again on the 27th, having subsisted on the hearts and livers of two dead horses, which they found on the army trail. Colonel Butler came in on the 28th from his raid on the east side of Cayuga Lake, having wrought a great destruction of villages and crops.** The crops left standing on the march into the Senecas country were destroyed on the return.
On the 29th of September the march for Tioga was resumed, and the army arrived at that point at two P.M. of the 30th, where they were received with demonstrations of great joy by Colonel Shrieve, who saluted the victors with 13 guns, and gave the general and his officers a grand entertainment, the drums and fifes and Colonel Proctor’s band playing their merriest strains. The officers of the 1st Brigade sent their horses to Wyoming, October 1, and their cow, which accompanied them through the entire expedition, and "to whom," says Colonel Hubley, "we are under infinite obligations for the great quantity of milk she afforded us, which rendered our situation very comfortable, and was no small addition to our half-allowance."
*It is stated elsewhere that, on the 24th, General Sullivan, by reason of the entire absence of forage, ordered that several hundred horses should be killed near the present site of the village of Horseheads, from which event that pleasant place received its appellation. Neither of the journals from which this account of the campaign has been compiled has the slightest allusion to such an order, or to the execution of it. The horses were doubtless killed as they became disabled for further service, but that "several hundred" were at this time and place put hors du combat is hardly possible, as some notice would haven taken of so notable an event by the journalists quoted.
**Two villages of the Cuyugas escaped the observation of Colonel Butler: Taghanie, on the creek of that name, where there were apple trees of two and a half centuries’ growth, and another one six miles southwest from Taghanie, both of which were thus saved from destruction.
On the 2d, General Sullivan feted his general- and field-officers with an elegant entertainment, which was closed with an Indian dance, several of the officers joining in the frolic. The dance was opened by a young sachem of the Oneidas, and followed by others present, who had acted as guides to the army. The young chief was a relative of Henjost, who was slain with Boyd. On the 3d the Oneidas were rewarded with presents for their services, and left for their homes near Oneida Lake. The army resumed its march October 4 for Wyoming, where it arrived October 7, and from thence marched to Morristown, N. J., where it went into winter quarters.
From Captain Livermore’s journal we gather the following account of the march of General Poor’s column up the Susquehanna to meet General Clinton. Captain Livermore says the command numbered 900 men, while Hubley fixes it at 700. The march was begun August 16, and on the 17th, says the captain, "we arrive at some considerable town (Indian), called Owago (Owego), 27 miles from Tiego. Here is a very good tract of land on both sides of the river. The town consists of about 20 houses, which we destroyed, together with considerable Indian corn which is in the mill, just fit to roast. The town appears to have been evacuated but a little time." August 18, after a tedious and disagreeable march, the command arrived at "Chucamuk (Choconut), a considerable Indian town on the east side of the river, consisting of about____houses, which we destroyed. Here we find corn and cucumbers in abundance. The land here is exceedingly fine, a large plot of about 400 or 500 acres clear run over to English grass, so thick and high it is with difficulty a man could travel through." At sunset General Clinton’s guns are heard, and the next day at ten A.M. that chieftain and his command appear, his boats riding on a flood-tide of the general’s own creation. The troops of General Poor at once right about, and the combined force encamp again at Owego on the night of the 12th August, and on the 20th encamp on the "bank of the river, 17 miles below Owego," and on the 22d arrived at Tioga as previously stated. Captain Livermore, describing the march of the army after the battle of Newtown, says, "August 31, army on the march; at two P.M. arrive at the forks of the river, the Allegaua branch keeping its former course, and the Tiego branch turning near a northwest course. Here are the principal improvements in Newton, and some good buildings of English construction, some very large flats of intervale, and great quantities of corn, which were destroyed yesterday. Here we take dinner and burn the town. At four P.M. proceed on the march, and at sunset encamp on a beautiful plain. We keep about a northwest course, following the Tiego branch"
At twelve o’clock, midnight, September 1, he arrives at "an Indian town called French Catherine’s, deriving its name from a French lady debauched by an Indian chief afterwards marrying him, and made queen of the place" At Kanadasaga (Geneva), he says, "we found an image which I think might be worshiped without any breach of the second commandment, not having its likeness in the heavens above nor in the earth beneath." "Here was a large burying-place, with several large monuments raised over some of their chiefs."
The captain goes into raptures over the Genesco flats. He says, "They are the most beautiful flats I ever saw, being not less than four miles in width, and extending right and left as far as can be seen,-supposed to be about 15,000 acres in one clear body." The town of Gensec (Genesco) was the finest Indian town he had seen and consisted of 100 houses, and the corn fields were immense, -700 acres, -and all laid waste. The captain happily describes the return to Tioga thus: "All marks of joy appeared on the face of every soldier having his brother messmate by the hand, appearing as happy as a prince."
The heavy artillery, wagons and wounded, were sent back to Tioga from the battle-field of Newtown, and but four small pieces and a howitzer were taken through to Genesco The artillery threw shells into the works at the battle, and it is said their explosion so frightened the Indians they retreated sooner than they otherwise would have done, and so escaped capture.
General Sullivan, by his severe strictures on the military board for their mismanagement, as he termed it, in forwarding supplies for his army, brought down the animosity of that body on his head, and he was retired from command and not again restored during the war. It was the original intention to push the campaign to Niagara, but owing to lack of proper supplies, the forward march was, by council of war, terminated at Genesco.