[The following recipes are vouched for by several who have tried them and proven their virtues. Many of them have been sold singly for more than the price of this book.--PUB.]
RING BONE AND SPAVIN.--2 oz. each of Spanish flies and Venice turpentine; 1 oz. each of aqua ammonia and euphorbium; ½ oz. red precipitate; ¼ oz. corrosive sublimate; 1 ½ lbs. lard. When thoroughly pulverized and mixed, heat carefully so as not to burn, and pour off free from sediment.
For ring-bone, rub in thoroughly, after removing hair, once in 48 hours. For spavin, once in 24 hours. Cleanse and press out the matter on each application.
POLL-EVIL.--Gum arable ¼ oz.; common potash ¼ oz; extract of belladonna ½ dr. Put the gum in just enough water to dissolve it. Pulverize the potash and mix with the dissolved gum, and then put in the extract of belladonna, and it will be ready for use. Use with a syringe after having cleansed with soap suds, and repeat once in two days till a cure is affected.
SCOURS.--Powdered tormentil root, given in milk, from 3 to 5 times daily till cured.
GREASE-HEEL AND SCRATCHES--Sweet oil 6 ozs.; borax 2 ozs.; sugar of lead 2 ozs. Wash off with dish water, and, after it is dry, apply the mixture twice a day.
CHOLIC IN HORSES.--To ½ pt. of warm water add 1 oz. laudanum and 3 ozs. spirits of turpentine, and repeat the dose in about ¾ of an hour, adding ½ oz. powdered aloes, if not relieved.
BOTS.--Three doses. 1st, 2 qts. milk and 1 of molasses. 2d. 15 minutes after, 2 qts. warm sage tea. 3d. After the expiration of 30 minutes, sufficient lard to physic.--Never fails.
PILES--PERFECTLY CURED.--Take flour of sulphur 1 oz., rosin 3 ozs., pulverize and mix well together. (Color with carmine or cochineal, if you like.) Dose--What will lie on a five cent piece, night and morning, washing the parts freely in cold water once or twice a day. This is a remedy of great value.
The cure will be materially hastened by taking a table-spoon of sulphur in a half pint of milk, daily, until the cure is affected.
SURE CURE FOR CORNS, WARTS AND CHILBLAINS.--Take of nitric and muriatic acids, blue vitriol and salts of tartar, 1 oz. each. Add the blue vitriol, pulverized, to either of the acids; add the salts of tartar in the same way; when done foaming, add the other acid, and in a few days it will be ready for use. For chilblains and corns apply it very lightly with a swab, and repeat in a day or two until cured. For warts, once a week, until they disappear.
HOOF-AIL IN SHEEP.--Mix 2 ozs. each of butter of antimony and muriatic acid with 1 oz. of pulverized white vitriol, and apply once or twice a week to the bottom of the foot.
COMMON RHEUMATISM.--Kerosene oil 2 ozs.; neats-foot oil 1 oz.; oil of organum ½ oz. Shake when used, and rub and heat in twice daily.
VERY FINE SOAP, QUICKLY AND CHEAPLY MADE.--14 pounds of bar soap in a half a boiler of hot water; cut up fine; add three pounds of sal-soda made fine; one ounce of pulverized rosin; stir it often till all is dissolved; just as you take it off the fire, put in two table-spoonfuls of spirits of turpentine and one of ammonia; pour it in a barrel, and fill up with cold soft water; let it stand three or four days before using. It is an excellent soap for washing clothes, extracting the dirt readily, and not fading colored articles.
WATER PROOF FOR LEATHER.--Take linseed oil 1 pint, yellow wax and white turpentine each 2 ozs. Burgandy pitch 1 oz., melt and color with lampblack.
TO KEEP CIDER SWEET.--Put into each barrel, immediately after making, ½ lb. ground mustard, 2 oz. salt and 2 oz. pulverized chalk. Stir them in a little cider, pour them into the barrel, and shake up well.
AGUE CURE.--Procure 1 ½ table-spoons of fresh mandrake root juice, (by pounding) and mix with the same quantity of molasses, and take in three equal doses, 2 hours a part, the whole to be taken 1 hour before the chill comes on. Take a swallow of some good bitters before meals, for a couple of weeks after the chills are broken, and the cure will be permanent.
CURE FOR SALT RHEUM OR SCURVY.--Take on the pokeweed, any time in summer; pound it; press out the juice; strain it into a pewter dish; set it in the sun till it becomes a salve--then put it into an earthen mug; add to it fresh water and bees’ wax sufficient to make an ointment of common consistency; simmer the whole over a fire till thoroughly mixed. When cold, rub the part affected. The patient will almost immediately experience its good effects, and the most obstinate cases will be cured in three or four months. Tested.--The juice of the ripe berries may be prepared in the same way.
SUPERIOR PAINT--FOR BRICK HOUSES.--To lime whitewash, add for a fastener, sulphate of zinc, and shade with any color you choose, as yellow ochre, Venetian red, etc. It outlasts oil pant.
FELONS.--Stir 1 oz. of Venice turpentine with ½ tea-spoonful of water, till it looks like candied honey, and apply by spreading upon cloth and wrapping around the finger. If not too long delayed will cure in 6 hours.
A poke root poultice is also said to be a sure remedy.
WATER-PROOF BLACKING AND HARNESS POLISH.--Two 2 ½ ounces gum shellac and ½ a pint of alcohol, and set in a warm place until dissolved; then add 2 ½ ounces Venice turpentine to neutralize the alcohol; add a tablespoonful of lampblack. Apply with a fine sponge. It will give a good polish over oil or grease.
MOSQUITOS.--To get rid of these tormentors, take a few hot coals on a shovel, or a chafing dish, and burn upon them some brown sugar in your bed-rooms and parlors, and you effectually banish or destroy every mosquito for the night.
CHEAP OUTSIDE PAINT.--Take two parts (in bulk) of water lime ground fine, one part (in bulk) of white lead ground in oil. Mix them thoroughly, by adding best boiled linseed oil, enough to prepare it to pass through a paint mill, after which temper with oil till it can be applied with a common paint brush. Make any color to suit. It will last three times as long as lead paint, and cost not ¼ as much. IT IS SUPERIOR.
CURE FOR A COUGH.--A strong decoction of the leaves of the pine, sweetened with loaf sugar. Take a wine-glass warm on going to bed, and ½ an hour before eating, three times a day. The above is sold as a cough syrup, and is doing wonderful cures, and it is sold at a great profit to the manufacturers.
How To Judge a Horse.
A correspondent, contrary to old maxims, undertakes to judge the character of a horse by outward appearances, and offers the following suggestions, the result of his close observation and long experience:
If the color be light sorrell, or chestnut, his feet, legs and face white, these are marks of kindness. If he is broad and full between the eyes, he may be depended on as a horse of good sense, and capable of being trained to anything.
As respects such horses, the more kindly you treat them the better you will be treated in return. Nor will a horse of this description stand a whip, if well fed.
If you want a safe horse, avoid one that is dish-faced. He may be so far gentle as not to scare; but he will have too much goahead in him to be safe with everybody.
If you want a fool, but a horse of great bottom, get a deep bay, with not a white hair about him. If his face is a little dished, so much the worse. Let no man ride such a horse that is not an adept in riding--they are always tricky and unsafe.
If you want one that will never give out, never buy a large, overgrown one.
A black horse cannot stand heat, nor a white one cold.
If you want a gentle horse, get one with more or less white about the head; the more the better. Many persons suppose the parti-colored horses belonging to the circuses, shows, &c., are selected for their oddity. But the selections thus made are on account of their great docility and gentleness.
Measurement of Hay in the Mow or Stack.--It is often desirable, where conveniences for weighing are not at hand, to purchase and sell hay by measurement. It is evident that no fixed rule will answer in all cases, as it would require more cubic feet at the top of a mow than at the bottom. The general rule adopted by those who have tested it, is 7 ½ cubic feet of solid Timothy hay, as taken from mow or bottom of stack. The rule may be varied for upper part of mow or stack according to pressure.
THIS COUNTY was formed from Tioga, March 29, 1836, and took its name from the principal river, Chemung, which signifies "Big Horn," or "Horn in the Water." This name was given to the river on account of the immense number of deer’s horns which were found in the water. A part of Schuyler County was taken off in 1854. It lies upon the south border of the State, is centrally distant 158 miles from Albany, and contains 406 square miles. The surface is principally a hilly upland, broken by the deep ravines of the streams. The highest points are from 400 to 600 feet above the valleys and from 1300 to 1500 feet above tide. The ridges extend in a general north and south direction, and have steep declivities, in some places precipitous and broad rolling summits. A deep valley, extending south from Seneca Lake, divides the highlands into two general systems, and forms an easy communication between the Susquehanna Valley and the central parts of the State.
The Chemung River flows south-east through the south part of the County, cutting the highlands diagonally. Wide alluvial flats extend along the river through nearly its whole course. These flats are bordered by steep hillsides, and are very productive. Catharine Creek flows north through the central valley into Seneca Lake. The other streams are Post, Sing Sing, Newtown, Goldsmith, Wynkoops and Cayuta Creeks, from the north; and Hendy and Seely Creeks from the south; all flowing into Chemung River. The valleys of these streams are generally narrow, and bordered by steep hills. The valleys of the smaller streams are mere ravines and gulleys.
The rocks of the County belong chiefly to the shales and sandstones of the Chemung group. In the north part, along the ravines, the rocks of the Portage group are exposed. In several places the sandstone is quarried for building purposes, and for flagging, and is of an excellent quality. Bog iron ore and marl are found to some extent. The soil is a sandy and gravelly loam, intermixed with clay in some places. The valleys are covered with a rich deep alluvium. The highlands are better adapted to grazing than to tillage.
Agriculture is the chief pursuit of the inhabitants. For many years lumbering was carried on to a great extent, 10,000,000 feet being floated down the Chemung and Susquehanna, from Elmira, annually. Since the disappearance of the fine forests, the attention of the people has been turned to stock raising, dairying and wool growing. Commerce and manufacturers have received increased attention since the completion of the canals and railroads, though these are still subordinate to the agricultural interest.
The County seat is located at Elmira, on Chemung River. Upon the organization of Tioga County, Elmira, then "Newtown," was made half-shire, and upon the formation of Chemung Co., in 1836, it was designated as the County seat, and the old county buildings were taken for the new County. The first county officers were Joseph L. Darling, First Judge; Andrew G. Gregg, District Attorney; Isaac Baldwin, County Clerk; Albert A. Beckwith, Sheriff; and Lyman Covill, Surrogate. The old county buildings have within a few years given place to new and commodious structures.
The County Poor House is located upon a farm in the south-east part of the town of Horseheads. The whole number of paupers present from November 6th, 1866, to November 6th, 1867, was 166. The average number kept for the year was 63, at an average expense of $1.49 per week each. The whole amount expended for the support of the poor during the year was $4,904.50.
The Chemung Canal extends south from Seneca Lake, through the central valley, to Chemung River, at Elmira, forming a direct connection with the great chain of internal water navigation of the State. A navigable feeder from Corning, Steuben County, forms a junction with the canal, on the summit, at Horseheads village. Junction Canal extends several miles along the Chemung, affording navigation at points where the river is obstructed by rapids and narrows. The Chemung Canal was authorized April 15th, 1829, and its construction was begun the same year, and finished in 1833. The total lockages on the Canal and feeder are 516 feet, by 53 locks, and the original cost was $344,000.
The New York & Erie R. R. extends along Chemung River, through Chemung,
Southport, Elmira and Big Flats. The Chemung R. R. extends north from Elmira,
through Horseheads and Veteran. The Williamsport and Elmira R. R. extends
south, through Southport, into Pennsylvania, forming a direct line to Philadelphia.
The Telegraph, at "Newtown," (now Elmira). It was issued at an early period by Prindle & Murphy.
The Vidette, and subsequently issued by William Murphy.
The Investigator was started at Elmira, in 1820, by Job Smith. In 1822 its name was changed to
The Tioga Register, and in 1828, to
THE ELMIRA GAZETTE. Its publication was continued by Mr. Smith, until 1831, when he was succeeded by Brinton Paine. It was published successively by Cyrus Pratt, Pratt & Beardsly, Mason & Rhodes, George W. Mason, Wm. C. Rhodes, S. C. Taber, F. A. DeVoe, F. A. & DeVoe & Son, F. A. DeVoe and C. Hazard, when it passed into the hands of L. A. & C. Hazard, its present publishers.
THE ELMIRA DAILY GAZETTE, which has now reached its 10th volume, is published at the same office and by the same proprietors.
The Elmira Republican was started in 1820, and in 1828 was changed to
The Elmira Whig, and published by James Durham. In 1829 it was again changed to
The Elmira Republican, and was issued by C. Morgan. It was soon after called
The Elmira Republican and Canal Advertiser. In 1831 it passed into the hands of John Duffy, and its name was changed back to
The Elmira Republican. It was subsequently published, successively, by Birdsell & Huntley, Ransom & Birdsell, Polly & Carter, Polly & Cook, Polly & Huntley, S. B. & G. C. Fairman, G. C. Fairman, Fairman & Baldwin, Baldwin & Dumas, and a Mr. Calhoun, until 1857, when it was discontinued.
The Elmira Daily Republican was issued a short time in 1846.
The Daily Republican was issued from the Republican office from the fall of 1851 to 1855.
THE ELMIRA DAILY ADVERTISER was started in 1853 by S. B. & G. C. Fairman. F. A. DeVoe, subsequently purchased an interest in the paper; upon his retirement, L. Caldwell purchased an interest. After several changes it passed into the hands of S. B. Fairman and L. Caldwell, by whom it was published until the death of Mr. Fairman. It is now published by the survivors of the firm.
THE ELMIRA WEEKLY ADVERTISER was started at the same time as the Daily, and is issued by the same proprietors.
The Elmira Daily Democrat was issued a short time in 1851, by J. Taylor and S. C. Taber.
The Chemung Patriot was published in 1837, at Horseheads, by J. T. Bradt.
The Philosopher was commenced at Horseheads, April 7, 1855, by Samuel C. Taber, and was continued until 1857, when it was merged in The Elmira Gazette.
The Chemung County Republican was issued during the campaign of 1856, edited by Florus B. Plimpton.
The Daily Press was started in 1859 by Dumas, VanGelder & Paine. It was subsequently discontinued.
The Temperance Gem (monthly), was published at Elmira about 1850.
THE HORSEHEADS JOURNAL was started in April 1866, by S. C. Clisbe and Charles Hinton. It is a weekly paper and now published by Charles Hinton.
The expedition of Gen. John Sullivan against the Indians in 1779, passed through this County. This expedition was organized for the special purpose of chastising the Indians and Tories, who, led by Brant and the Butlers, had been laying waste the settlements of the whites, plundering and burning their houses, murdering or carrying into captivity men, women and children, without regard to age, sex or condition. The most effectual way to check these barbarous incursions was supposed to be to send an army through the territory of the Six Nations, and, by fire and sword, teach them the power against which they were contending. The army of General Sullivan assembled at Tioga Point, August 22d, consisting of the brigades of Generals Clinton, Hand, Maxwell and Poor, together with Proctor’s artillery and a corps of riflemen; numbering in all about 5,000 men. The march from Tioga Point was commenced August 26th. The movement of the expedition had been so slow that the enemy were prepared to receive them. A short distance from Conwawah, where the city of Elmira now stands, and where the Indians had a considerable village, the enemy had thrown up works and were prepared to make a bold stand against the invaders. The Americans moved cautiously up the Chemung, having large flanking parties thrown out to guard against surprise by the enemy. On the march they destroyed a small Indian village, and on the 29th they discovered the enemy’s works. The enemy were securely posted upon the east side of the river, upon a bend in the stream, which protected their right flank and rear, while their left rested upon a high ridge, which extended for some distance nearly parallel with the river. The artificial defences of the enemy, consisting of fallen trees whose branches were clothed with foliage, together with the shrubs of oak and pine growing upon the ground, afforded a good protection against the attacks of the Americans. A vigorous attack in front was made by one division, while another attempted to turn the left flank of the enemy posted upon the ridge. For two hours the firing was incessant, the Indians fighting behind the shrubs and thickets, cheered on by their leader, Brant, who appeared at all points, at length became demoralized by the artillery, and Brant, seeing that the day was lost, raised the loud retreating cry, Oonah! Oonah! and savages and Tories hastily retreated across the river, pursued by the Americans. Considering the time occupied by the battle the loss was very small. Only five or six of the Americans were killed, and 40 or 50 wounded; some authorities setting the number even less than that. Nine Indians were found dead upon the field, the rest of the dead and wounded being carried off in the retreat. Sullivan’s army rested upon the battle field that night, and the next morning continued their march towards Catharinestown. The march was a difficult and dangerous one, lying along a deep, narrow valley, traversed by a stream so tortuous that it had to be crossed several times, in some instances where the water was up to the waist. The enemy might have rallied upon the hills and greatly annoyed, if not destroyed or captured the invading foe; but the Indians had become so alarmed at the artillery that they could not be induced to make a stand. The army arrived at Catharinestown September 2d, but found the village deserted, its inhabitants having fled in terror. The village and fields were destroyed by the Americans the next day. From this point the work of destruction was carried on without interruption; fields of corn, orchards of apples, pears and peaches, the growth of many years, fell before the hands of the invaders. The threat of Gen. Sullivan was fully carried out. "The Indians shall see," said he, "that there is malice enough in our hearts to destroy everything that contributes to their support." The Cayugas and Senecas had made considerable progress in civilization, had large villages, and cultivated fields and orchards, and their houses exhibited many of the indications of civilized life. So great was the destruction and devastation made that the Indians afterwards called Washington "The Town Destroyer," fully understanding that the expedition was made by his order. Gen. Sullivan did not proceed to Niagara, as he at first intended, but after reaching the Genesee Valley, returned. The army arrived in the valley of Catharine’s Creek, on the return march, September 24th, and the forage becoming short, Gen. Sullivan ordered a large number of the horses killed. The skulls of these animals being afterwards placed along the road, gave the name to the village in the vicinity, and subsequently to the town. The next morning the news was received of a declaration of war by Spain against Great Britain, and the occasion was celebrated with every demonstration of joy. Five oxen were killed, one delivered to each brigade, and one to the artillery and staff, with which to make merry.
A portion of this County was included in the Watkins & Flint Tract, which embraced also parts of Schuyler and Tompkins. The southern part of the County was included in a Royal grant made previous to the Revolutionary war. It was surveyed in 1788, by Commissioners of the Land Office, James Clinton, J. Hathorn and J. Cantine, as Chemung Township, and embraced 205 lots.
The first settlements were made in 1788-90, by emigrants from Pennsylvania and New Jersey, most of whom were with General Sullivan in his expedition against the Indians. They settled along the valley of the Chemung River, at Elmira, Southport and Big Flats. The early settlers were subject to the usual hardships and privations incident to a new country. Through energy and perseverance the wilderness became a fruitful field, roads and bridges were built and the luxuries of civilized life were placed within the reach of all. Canals and railroads were subsequently built, opening avenues to the east and west, giving them an easy and rapid communication with all the great thoroughfares and business centers of the country. Manufacturing was introduced, giving employment to a large number of persons, and now the County is one of the most prosperous in the State.
When the news of the fall of Fort Sumter, and the Proclamation of the President calling for volunteers, flashed across the wires from the Atlantic to the Pacific, the loyal sons of Chemung rallied to the support of the old flag, showing that they were not unworthy sons of illustrious sires, who fought to establish the Government which they were now called upon to defend against armed treason and rebellion. It is to be regretted that we have not the statistics at hand to show how many from this County served in the war against the Rebellion. Since we are unable to do this, it must suffice to say that Chemung was not behind the other counties in furnishing men and means, as the battle fields and prison pens of the South abundantly testify. Amid the excitements of party strife, men may forget their duty to their country, but its brave defenders will live in the hearts of all true and loyal citizens; and as the record of their deeds shall be transmitted from generation to generation, it will form a more enduring monument than the most imperishable marble. As we now honor the founders of the Republic, so will future generations honor its defenders.
GAZETTEER OF TOWNS.
ASHLAND was formed from Southport, Elmira and Chemung, in April 1867. It lies upon the south border of the County, on both sides of Chemung River. Broad, fertile, alluvial flats border the river, and in other portions of the town the surface is a hilly upland. South and Seely Creeks are the principal tributaries of Chemung River in this town. The soil upon the hills is a slaty loam, and in the valleys a fine quality of gravelly loam.
Wellsburgh, (p. v.) situated in the north-east part of the town, on Chemung River, contains two churches and several manufacturing establishments. It is a station on the N. Y. & E. R. R., and contains about 500 inhabitants.
Lowmanville (Lowman p. o.) is a hamlet, east of the center.
The first settlement at Wellsburgh, in 1788, by Green Bently. Abner and Henry Wells settled at the same place the next year. It is believed that the following persons settled within the limits of this town at an early day, viz: Ebenezer Green, Abijah Batterson, Samuel Westbrook, Abraham Bennett, Asa Burnham, Abiel Fry and Thomas Kenny.
The first birth was that of Eunice Kelsey, and the first death that of Stephen Kent. The first school was taught by Caleb Baker; the first inn was kept by William Baldwin, and the first store by William and Henry Wells, at Wellsburgh. The first church (Bap.) was formed in 1790, by Rev. Roswell Goff, the first preacher.
This town contains an area of 8,750 acres.
There are four school districts, employing five teachers. The whole number of persons between the ages of five and 21 years, during the last year, was 270, and the average attendance at school 103. The amount expended for school purposes was $1,-009.86.
BALDWIN was formed from Chemung, April 7th, 1856. It is situated south-east of the center of the County, a narrow strip extending to the east border between the towns of Chemung and VanEtten. The surface is a hilly upland, broken by the deep valleys of Baldwin and Wynkoop’s Creeks. The soil is a shaly and clayey loam upon the hills, and in the valleys a gravelly loam.
Hammond’s Corners (North Chemung p. o.) contains a church, a tannery and about 20 houses.
The first settlement was made in 1813, a little north of the village, by Henry Sice. Warren and Charles Granger settled at the village in 1814. The town received its name from Baldwin Creek, which received its name from Isaac, Walter and Thomas Baldwin, brothers, who settled at the mouth of the Creek. It was previously called Butler’s Creek. The Baldwins were members of General Sullivan’s expedition against the Indians in 1779, and Walter was wounded at the battle of Newtown.
The first child born was Simeon Hammond, and the first death was that of Thomas Wheeler, killed by the falling of a tree. The first school was taught by Polly Blandin, a short distance north of the village. D. R. Harris kept the first inn, and Miles Covel the first store, north of the village. The first church (Union), was formed in 1852 by Dr. Murdock, the first preacher.
In 1865 the population of this town was 923, and its area 15,909 acres.
There are eight school districts, employing eight teachers. The number of persons of school age during the last year was 328, the average attendance 105, and the amount expended for school purposes $1,745.88.
BIG FLATS was formed from Elmira, April 16th, 1822. It takes its name from the large flats extending through the town near the center. It lies upon the west border of the County, south of the center. The surface consists of a broken upland in the north and south, separated by a broad flat, which extends north-east of the Chemung River, through the center of the town. The Chemung has several tributaries from the north, the principal of which is Sing Sing Creek. Upon the hills the soil is slaty loam, and in the valleys a gravelly loam, very productive. Tobacco is raised to some extent upon the flats. The cultivation of this was commenced in 1850, by Sanford Elmore, from Connecticut, and since that its cultivation has been continued. In 1867, Mr. Mundy raised about 20 acres, averaging about 1500 pounds to the acre. It was sold at an average price of 15 cents a pound.
Big Flats, (p. v.) situated on the N. Y. & Erie R. R., contains four churches, viz: Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian and Episcopal; and a school, employing two teachers. There are also one store, four groceries, one hotel, two wagon shops, and several other mechanics of various kinds. A short distance from the village is a grist mill, and a steam flouring mill is in process of erection.
The first settlement was made by Christian Miner, from Pennsylvania, in 1787. Caleb Gardner and Henry Starell, from Pennsylvania, settled on the river, below Miner, the same year or the next. George GARDNER settled at the village in 1788; Clark Winans in 1789, and John Winters, Jesse and Joel Rowley, and Geo. Gardner, Jr., all from Pennsylvania, settled in 1790.
The first birth was that of Christian Miner, Jr., in 1790; the first marriage that of William Applegate and Catharine Miner; and the first death that of T. Dolson. Cornelius McGinnis taught the first school, near the village; John Hay kept the first store, and Capt. George Gardner the first inn at the village. The first gristmill was erected by Robert Miller, east of the village. The first church (Bap.) was formed in 1807. Rev. Roswell Goff was the first preacher.
The population of the town in 1865 was 1,891, and its area 26,097 acres.
The town contains 11 school districts, employing 12 teachers. The number of persons of school age was 502, and the average attendance the past year 179. The amount expended for school purposes was $2,611.54.
CATLIN was formed from Catharine, Schuyler County, April 16, 1823. It is the north-west corner town of the County. The surface is a hilly upland, the highest summits being from 200 to 400 feet above the valleys. The principal streams are Post and Sing Sing Creeks and Hubbard’s Run. The soil is chiefly a gravelly loam, and better adapted to grazing than to village. There is no village in the town.
Post Creek is a post office.
The first settlers were John Martin, from Tompkins County, and Aaron Davenport, from New Jersey, who located in the south-west corner of the town. Among the other early settlers were N. Swick, Homer Tupper, Edward Beebe, Jacob Bucher, Alanson Owen, John Woolsey and J. M. Barker, who located in the south part. Jacob Bucher kept the first inn, on Post Creek, and Mr. Ostrander erected the first saw and gristmills, on the same stream. Reuben Beebe died in town in 1854, at the age of 105; his widow, Hannah Beebe, lived to a still greater age. Mr. Beebe served as a soldier in the Revolutionary war.
In 1865 the town contained a population of 1,444; its area is 23,304 acres.
The town contains 14 school districts, employing 14 teachers. The number of persons of school age was 519, the average attendance the past year 184, and the amount expended for school purposes $2,382.37.
CHEMUNG was formed February 28th, 1789. Elmira was taken off in 1792, Erin in 1822, Baldwin in 1856, and a part of Ashland in 1867. It is the south-east corner town of the County. The surface is a hilly upland, broken by deep and narrow valleys. Chemung River is the principal stream, and flows south-east through the south part. Wynkoop’s Creek flows south through the town, near the center, in a deep valley, bordered by steep hillsides. The soil on the uplands is a gravelly loam, and in the valleys, gravel mixed with alluvium. Broomcorn and tobacco are largely cultivated.
Breckville, (Chemung p. o.) situated on Chemung River, contains a church and about 60 houses. It is also a station on the N. Y. & E. R. R.
Chemung Center is a post office.
The first settlement of this town was made at Breckville, in 1788, by Elijah Breck, Capt. Daniel McDowell and William Wynkoop. Breck and McDowell were from Pennsylvania. Other early settlers were Jacob Beidleman, Hon. John G. McDowell, Dr. Harvey Everett and Jacob Lowman.
The first marriage was that of Guy Maxwell and Nellie Wynkoop; and the first death that of William Bosworth. The first inn was kept by William Wynkoop, on Wynkoop’s Creek, and the first store by Elijah Breck, at Breckville. Epinetus Owen erected the first gristmill, on Wynkoop’s Creek. William Wynkoop was from Ulster County, and settled at the mouth of the creek which bears his name. Samuel Wallace was the first school teacher; he was killed by the Indians. The first church (Bap.) was formed in 1790 by Roswell Goff. Asa Parshall, one of the first settlers of the Chemung Valley, was present at the Indian treaty at Newtown, in 1790, and ran a foot race with an Indian, and came off victorious.
In 1865 the town contained a population of 1,950; its area is 29,300 acres.
The town contains 15 school districts, employing 16 teachers. The number of persons of school age was 783, the average attendance the past year 283, and the amount expended for schools $4,462.27.
ELMIRA was formed from Chemung, as "Newtown," April 10, 1792, and its name was changed April 6, 1808. Catharine (Schuyler Co.,) was taken off in 1798; Big Flats and Southport in 1822; Horseheads in 1854; and a part of Ashland in 1867. It is situated south of the center of the County. On the east and west borders are ranges of hills, between which extends a wide valley. The summits of the hills are from 400 to 600 feet above the valleys, and their declivities are generally steep. Chemung river, which forms the south boundary, and Newtown and Goldsmiths Creeks, are the principal streams. The soil is a gravelly loam upon the uplands, and a fertile sandy loam in the valleys. The town had a population of 1,169 in 1865, and an area of 14,682 acres.
Elmira contains six school districts, employing six teachers. The whole number of persons of school age was 460, the average attendance the last year 165, and the amount expended for schools $1,594.59.
ELMIRA CITY was formed from Elmira and Southport, April 7, 1865. It was incorporated as a village March 3, 1815, as "Newtown," and its name was changed April 21, 1828. It is situated on Chemung River, chiefly upon its north bank. The city contains the County buildings, four banks, two daily and two weekly papers, a book and job printing office, 12 churches, a Jewish synanogue, a female college, a water cure establishment and several large manufacturing establishments. The population of the city in 1865 was 13,130. It is rapidly increasing and is now variously estimated at $15-20,000.
The Elmira Female College was the first one of the kind established in the State. It was opened in October 1855, under the charge of Mrs. Dunlap, an accomplished lady and experienced teacher. The design of the institution was to afford to ladies a more extensive course of study than is usually offered in seminaries and academies. The College has enjoyed a good degree of prosperity, and its founders and patrons are encouraged to continue to labor in its behalf. It is not sectarian in its character, but has in its Board of Trustees, members of the leading Christian denominations of the State. The college owes its financial success to the liberality of Simeon Benjamin, Esq., the able and generous Treasurer of the Board of Trustees. He has made donations to the Institution, amounting in the aggregate to nearly $60,000. Since preparing this article, the sad intelligence comes to us that Mr. Benjamin has finished his work on earth, and gone to his reward.
The public schools are graded and in a flourishing condition. The whole number of pupils on the school register for 1867 was 2,832, and the number of teachers employed, 44. The whole cost of tuition for each scholar in the schools during the same year was $10.35.
The Elmira Academy of Sciences is an organization for the promotion of scientific investigations. Through the liberality of the citizens, an Observatory has been erected, containing a telescope, a sidereal clock and other apparatus for astronomical observations.
Among the manufactories worthy of notice is the establishment of the Elmira Rolling Mill Company. It was incorporated in 1860, and immediately erected spacious buildings which have been increased from time to time to keep pace with the increasing business of the Company. The Company manufacture railroad and merchant bar iron, and give employment to about 300 men.
The Clinton Woolen Mills Company was organized in 1868, and purchased the mill and machinery of the Elmira Woolen Manufacturing Company, and are carrying on the manufacturing business. Messrs. D. & R. Pratt, now interested in the business, were the pioneers of the County in this branch of manufacturing, having introduced the first power-loom into the County.
Extensive railway car shops have been established here. The saw manufactory of Andrews & Burbage is very extensive, making all kinds and sizes for mill and hand use.
The Southern Tier Orphans’ Home. This institution had its origin in the "Elmira Phoenix Hospital Aid Association," organized in October 1864. Its first object was to care for soldiers’ families. An industrial department supplied sewing to those who were able to labor, and homes were provided for those who had none. To carry out the objects of the Association, it was found necessary to have a place where the sick women and little children could be properly cared for. To accomplish this, efforts were made to raise money by subscription for the erection of a building where cheap rent and employment might be given to soldiers’ families. The name of the Society was now changed to the "Elmira Ladies Relief Association." Two thousand dollars were raised by subscription, which, with an appropriation from the Government, enabled the Association, January 1, 1866, to purchase the house and grounds now occupied, being about ¾ of an acre. The house was soon opened and filled to its utmost capacity with sick adults and little children. Soon after the close of the war it was decided to change the character of the institution, and make it an Orphan Asylum, and it received the name of the Southern Tier Orphans Home. In the fall of 1867, the building was so enlarged as to accommodate 30. Various plans have been resorted to with success in order to support this everchanging family; such as public suppers, tableaux, concerts and lectures. The Legislature have each year granted a small appropriation; citizens send in clothing, provisions, furniture, and sometimes money. Mr. and Mrs. Burlingame are Superintendent and Matron, Mrs. David Decker, President; Mrs. P. A. Lafrance and Mrs. A. Robertson, Vice Presidents; Mrs. Luther Caldwell, Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. J. B. Dunning, Recording Secretary and Mr. N. P. Fassett, Treasurer. More than 100 have been received at the Institution, most of whom have been provided with good homes. About 20 are now enjoying the advantages of the Institution. A sabbath and day school are kept in a small building on the premises. Though the Institution has been supported chiefly by the citizens of Elmira and vicinity, excepting appropriations from the State, its doors are opened to the needy in the southern tier of counties in the State.
The first settlement of the town was made by Colonel John Hendy, in 1788, near the present site of Elmira City. He came up the river from Wilkesbarre, Penn., in a canoe. Soon after his arrival he planted a field of corn, and during the summer spent considerable time in exploring the region for a suitable place for a permanent settlement. Among other early settlers were Christian and Peter Loup, John Conkle, James Cameron, William Seely, John Miller, Caleb Baker, Thomas Hendy and Mr. Marks. The earliest settlers purchased their land of the Clintons. Col. Hendy purchased 800 acres of James Clinton, for one shilling an acre. The place was surveyed by James Clinton, Gen. John Hathorn and John Cantine, Commissioners. In 1791, an Indian Council was held at Newtown Point. The Indians assembled in great numbers, not less than 1200 being present; among them were some of their most noted Chiefs. The object of the assembly was to form a treaty with the United States Government. Col. Timothy Pickering, a Revolutionary patriot, represented the Government. The treaty was negotiated under a tree, which was subsequently known as the "Old Council Tree."
Dr. Amos Park was the first physician, and was also a preacher. The Kline House, was one of the first hotels, kept by a man named Stoner. The first representative to the State Legislature was Hon. Vincent Matthews, who was elected to the Assembly in 1794-95, and to the Senate, from the Western District, in 1796, in which he served till 1802. The first merchants were Cyrus Hallenbeck and Daniel Cruger. The first gristmill was built by Brinton Paine and William Dunn. General Matthew Carpenter built a sawmill, and a wool carding and cloth dressing mill at an early day.
In 1797, Louis Phillippe, and two French noblemen, visited this place. They came on foot from Canandaigua, where they had spent some time, having letters of introduction from Thomas Morris to Henry Tower, Esq. Mr. Tower entertained his distinguished guests for several days, after which they went to Harrisburg, in a boat filled up for the purpose.
The first church (Presbyterian), was organized in 1795, by Rev. Daniel Thatcher.
In 1861 Elmira was designated as a place of rendezvous for the volunteers who cheerfully offered their services in defence of their country against the assault of traitors. Barracks were erected, and here assembled the volunteers from Central and Western New York, to await the organization of regiments, to receive arms, equipments and supplies for the active duties to which they were subsequently called. Among those who offered their services were some of the descendants of the former owners of the soil, the children of the Six Nations. In 1864, a military prison was established here, and about 12,000 prisoners, chiefly from North Carolina, were furnished with quarters. Though they were well cared for, received comfortable food, clothing and medical attendance, nearly 3,000 of them fell victims to disease, and were buried in Woodlawn Cemetery.
March 18th, 1864, while the Sanitary Fair was in successful operation, a terrible accident occurred that sent a thrill of horror through the whole community, and shrouded in gloom the hearts of all. The First Presbyterian Church, in which the Fair was held, took fire while it was being lighted for the evening. The festoons of evergreen which decorated the church, had become dry, and so rapidly the flames leaped from festoon to festoon that in a few minutes the whole interior was in flames. But few persons were in the church at the time, or the loss of life must have been great; as it was, two only perished in the flames, though others were seriously injured in their endeavors to rescue from a terrible fate their friends who were exposed to imminent peril.
ERIN was formed from Chemung, March 29th, 1822. In 1854 a part of VanEtten was taken off. It extends from near the center of the County to the north border. The surface is an upland, hilly, and broken by the deep and narrow valleys of the streams. The streams are small, the principal being Baker’s, Baldwin’s, Wynkoop’s and Newtown Creeks. There is a fine sulphur spring in the south part of the town, on Baker’s Creek. The soil is a gravelly loam, tolerably productive, but better adapted to grazing than to tillage. Lumber is manufactured to some extent, and not more than half of the surface is under improvement.
Erin and State Road are post offices.
The first settlement was made in 1817, by Robert Park and John Banfield. Jesse L. White, Isaac Shoemaker, Alexander and John McKay, Thomas Baker, William and Robert Stewart, John and James Hollenbeck, B. Sperry, Thomas Van Houton, Philip Thomas, J. Boyn, Robert McDowell and his son Barnum, Andrew Austin, Joseph, Daniel and Samuel Vaughn, were among the other early settlers.
The first death was that of Mrs. Thomas Baker. The first school was kept on Newtown Creek. The first saw mill was erected at the same place by J. & J. Miller.
In 1865 the population was 1,256; its area is 26,817 acres.
The town contains 13 school districts, employing 13 teachers. The number of persons of school age was 457, the average attendance the last year 165, and the amount expended for schools $2,191.06.
HORSEHEADS was formed from Elmira, February 17th, 1854. It is an interior town, lying near the center of the County. The surface in the east part is hilly, and in the west rolling and level. The summits of the hills are from 600 to 800 feet above Seneca Lake, and the summit level of the Chemung Canal at Horseheads in 443 feet above the same. Newtown Creek and its branches are the principal streams. The soil is a gravelly loam, of good quality. Tobacco has been cultivated to considerable extent for several years.
Horseheads (p. v.) was incorporated May 15th, 1837, as Fairport, and its name changed April 18th, 1845. It contains five churches, viz: Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, Episcopal and Roman Catholic; two flouring mills, one steam saw and planing mill, one brick yard, a woolen factory, a foundry and machine shop, two carriage shops, and several other manufactories. The "Empire Mills" as the "Horseheads Mills" are each capable of manufacturing about 800 bushels daily. The "Kline Iron Works" is one of the most extensive establishments in this part of the State, for the manufacture of mill irons and machinery, building fronts, fences and agricultural implements.
The brick manufactory of Mr. Benjamin Westlake is one of the largest in the State. It contains five machines, each capable of turning out 50,000 bricks daily. The various kinds of brick manufactured here are of the best quality. Mr. Westlake is prepared to fill all orders at short notice. The Chemung navigable feeder, from Corning, intersects the canal at this place, affording facilities for the transfer of freight to all parts of the country.
Breesport, (p. v.) situated in the eastern part, contains two churches and about 400 inhabitants. It also contains a large stream saw mill, and is largely engaged in the lumbering business.
Mr. Richard Hetfield, of this town, is extensively engaged in the manufacture of Elderberry wine. He cultivates his berries, and makes about 100 barrels per year. It sells for about $2.00 per gallon.
The first settlement was made in 1789, by John Breese, from New Jersey. He built a log house a short distance below the village, on the east side of the road leading from the river to Seneca Lake. While Gen. Sullivan was encamped at this place, he caused a large number of condemned horses to be shot. The Indians afterwards collected the bones of the heads and placed them along the path, and from that circumstance the place received the name of Horseheads.
In 1791, Jonathan S. Conklin, Nathaniel Huntington, Asa Guildersleve, and a family named Gilbert, arrived and settled in this vicinity. Soon after, a company from Orange County, New Jersey, among whom were James, Ebenezer and John Sayre, purchased 1,400 acres of land, covering the site of the village, and settled on it. From Wilkesbarre, Penn., their goods were poled up the river on a flatboat, while the women and children, on horseback, followed along the banks.
The first birth was that of Susanna Conklin, in 1792; the first marriage that of William Dunn and Mary Sayre; and the first death that of Susanna Conklin. The first school was taught by Amelia Parkhurst, in a log house. Solomon More built the first tannery, and Vincent Conklin kept the first inn. The first grist mill was erected by Lewis Breese. The first church (Presb.) of Horseheads was organized in 1832, and in April 1833 Rev. Ethan Pratt was installed pastor. In August 1862, a disastrous fire occurred in the village of Horseheads, which destroyed property to the amount of $75,000. Mrs. Sarah Jackson, now in the 80th year of her age, is said to be the first white woman born in the County.
The population of the town in 1865 was 2,838; its area is 21,880 acres.
The town contains 10 school districts, employing 15 teachers. The whole number of persons between five and 21 years of age was 1,111, the average attendance during the last year was 337, and the amount expended for schools $4,831.53.
SOUTHPORT was formed from Elmira, April 16, 1822, and a part of Ashland was taken off in 1867. It is the south-west corner town of the County. The surface is chiefly a hilly upland, broken by the deep valleys of the streams. Chemung River forming a part of the north boundary, is the principal stream; it is bordered by broad, fertile alluvial flats. Seely Creek receives as tributaries South, Bird and Mud Lick Creeks. Hendy Creek flows along the north border. The soil upon the hills is a slaty loam, and in the valleys a fine quality of gravelly loam.
Southport (p. v.) is situated in the north-east part, and contains two churches, several mills and manufactories, and about 200 inhabitants.
Seely Creek, in the central part, is a post office.
Webbs Mills (p. o.) is a hamlet in the southern part.
The first settlement was made at Southport in 1789, by Abraham Miller, from Pennsylvania. He served as Captain in the army during the Revolution and was appointed First Judge of Tioga County, by Governor Clinton, in 1791.
The first sawmill was erected by Colonel Miller, on a branch of Seely Creek; the first gristmills were erected by David Griswold and Solomon Bovier, and the first factory by Charles Evans, at Southport. John and Timothy Smith, Lebeus Hammond, William Jenkins and Rufus Baldwin, were some of the other early settlers.
The population of the town in 1865 was 3,412, and its area is 28,969 acres.
There are 16 school districts, employing 16 teachers. The whole number of persons between five and 21 years of age, during the last year, was 926; the average attendance 270, and the amount expended for school purposes was $4,705.49.
VAN ETTEN, named from James B. Van Etten, was formed from Erin and Cayuta, April 17th, 1854. It is situated in the north-east corner of the County. The surface is a hilly upland. Cayuta Creek flows south-east through the center, and receives as tributaries Jackson and Langford’s Creeks from the north, and Baker’s Creek from the south. The soil is a clay loam upon the hills and a gravelly loam in the valleys.
Van Ettenville, (p. v.) situated in the east part of the town, contains three churches and about 20 houses.
Van Etten is a post office in the western part.
The first settlements were made along the valley of Cayuta Creek in 1795, by Alexander, Benjamin, Ennis, Peter, Jacob, Emanuel and Isaac Swartwood, from New Jersey. From 1795 to 1800, Cayuta Flats, at and near Van Ettenville, was settled by persons from the Delaware River, among whom were James Van Etten, John and David Hill, Isaac and Levi Decker, Samuel, James, Daniel and Joshua Westbrook, John Lattimore, and a Mr. Johnson and Cramer. In 1802, Harmon White, from Litchfield, Conn., David and Gabriel Jayne, from New Jersey, settled on a branch of Cayuta Creek. Most of these settlers were men who had served in the army during the war, two of whom, James Van Etten and Isaac Decker, were wounded by musket balls, which they carried to their graves.
Flanders and Skaates kept the first store at VanEttenville; Isaac Swartwood erected the first gristmill in 1803, and Jacob Swartwood opened the first inn in 1801. The first church (Bap.) was formed by Rev. Ebenezer Jayne, the first settled minister.
The population in 1865 was 1,485; its area is 24,787 acres.
There are 14 school districts, employing 15 teachers. The whole number of persons between five and 21 years of age during the last school year was 521; the average attendance 139, and the amount expended for school purposes $1,963.73.
VETERAN was formed from Catharine, April 16, 1823. It is situated on the north line of the County, west of the center. The surface is chiefly a hilly upland. Catharine Creek flows north along the west border, affording numerous mill sites. The other streams are Newtown and Beardsley Creeks. The soil is fertile, being a gravelly loam; in some places however it is clayey.
Millport, (p. v.) situated in the north-west part of the town, on the Northern Central R. R., and Chemung Canal, contains two churches, three large flouring mills, a sash and blind factory, a bedstead factory, a cabinet shop, a foundry, a hotel, half a dozen stores and several mechanic shops, and a population of about 800.
Sullivanville, (p. v.) in the south-east part, contains a church, two hotels, two wagon shops, a stave factory and about 200 inhabitants.
Pine Valley, (p. v.) is situated on the Northern Central R. R., and the Chemung Canal, and contains a hotel, two stores, a blacksmith shop and a shoe shop. The Free Will Baptists are erecting a church here.
Pine Grove is a post office.
The first settlements were made about the commencement of the century, in the north part of the town, by immigrants from Connecticut; and in the south part, by immigrants from Pennsylvania. Among those from Connecticut may be named E. Mallary and son, Eli and David Banks, and families named Meeker, Baldwin and Parsons. Theodore Vallean, D. Shaffer, N. Botsford and B. Lockesby came from Pennsylvania.
E. Crandall, kept the first store, at Millport, and Daniel Parsons kept the first inn. G. Bennett erected the first sawmill, on Catharine Creek, below Millport. The first church (M. E.) was formed in 1817.
In the summer of 1857 a very destructive flood occurred upon the stream, sweeping away every dam upon it, and every lock upon the canal, from Horseheads to Seneca Lake. The whole valley was flooded, and at Millport and other places along the stream, people were obliged to flee for their lives.
In 1865 the town contained a population of 2,429, and its area is 22,775 acres.
There were 17 school districts, employing 19 teachers. The whole number of persons between 5 and 21 years of age was 891; the average attendance 275, and the amount expended for schools $4,161.39.